Aerospace structures are often subjected to combined inertial acceleration and vibration environments during operation. Traditional qualification approaches independently assess a system under inertial and vibration environments but are incapable of addressing couplings in system response under combined environments. Considering combined environments throughout the design and qualification of a system requires development of both analytical and experimental capabilities. Recent ground testing efforts have improved the ability to replicate flight conditions and aid qualification by incorporating combined centrifuge acceleration and vibration environments in a “vibrafuge” test. Modeling these loading conditions involves the coupling of multiple physical phenomena to accurately capture dynamic behavior. In this work, finite element analysis and model validation of a simple research structure was conducted using Sandia’s SIERRA analysis suite. Geometric preloading effects due to an applied inertial load were modeled using SIERRA coupled analysis capability, and structural dynamics analysis was performed to evaluate the updated structural response compared to responses under vibration environments alone. Results were validated with vibrafuge testing, using a test setup of amplified piezoelectric actuators on a centrifuge arm.
Computational engineering models often contain unknown entities (e.g. parameters, initial and boundary conditions) that require estimation from other measured observable data. Estimating such unknown entities is challenging when they involve spatio-temporal fields because such functional variables often require an infinite-dimensional representation. We address this problem by transforming an unknown functional field using Alpert wavelet bases and truncating the resulting spectrum. Hence the problem reduces to the estimation of few coefficients that can be performed using common optimization methods. We apply this method on a one-dimensional heat transfer problem where we estimate the heat source field varying in both time and space. The observable data is comprised of temperature measured at several thermocouples in the domain. This latter is composed of either copper or stainless steel. The optimization using our method based on wavelets is able to estimate the heat source with an error between 5% and 7%. We analyze the effect of the domain material and number of thermocouples as well as the sensitivity to the initial guess of the heat source. Finally, we estimate the unknown heat source using a different approach based on deep learning techniques where we consider the input and output of a multi-layer perceptron in wavelet form. We find that this deep learning approach is more accurate than the optimization approach with errors below 4%.
Clem, Paul G.; Nieves, Cesar A.; Yuan, Mengxue Y.; Ogrinc, Andrew L.; Furman, Eugene F.; Kim, Seong H.; Lanagan
, Michael T.
Ionic conduction in silicate glasses is mainly influenced by the nature, concentration, and mobility of the network-modifying (NWM) cations. The electrical conduction in SLS is dominated by the ionic migration of sodium moving from the anode to the cathode. An activation energy for this conduction process was calculated to be 0.82eV and in good agreement with values previously reported. The conduction process associated to the leakage current and relaxation peak in TSDC for HPFS is attributed to conduction between nonbridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC). It is suggested that ≡Si-OH = ≡Si-O- + H0 under thermo-electric poling, promoting hole or proton injection from the anode and responsible for the 1.5eV relaxation peak. No previous TSDC data have been found to corroborate this mechanism. The higher activation energy and lower current intensity for the coated HPFS might be attributed to a lower concentration of NBOHC after heat treatment (Si-OH + OH-Si = SiO-Si + H2O). This could explain the TSDC signal around room temperature for the coated HPFS. Another possible explanation could be a redox reaction at the anode region dominating the current response.
National security applications require artificial neural networks (ANNs) that consume less power, are fast and dynamic online learners, are fault tolerant, and can learn from unlabeled and imbalanced data. We explore whether two fundamentally different, traditional learning algorithms from artificial intelligence and the biological brain can be merged. We tackle this problem from two directions. First, we start from a theoretical point of view and show that the spike time dependent plasticity (STDP) learning curve observed in biological networks can be derived using the mathematical framework of backpropagation through time. Second, we show that transmission delays, as observed in biological networks, improve the ability of spiking networks to perform classification when trained using a backpropagation of error (BP) method. These results provide evidence that STDP could be compatible with a BP learning rule. Combining these learning algorithms will likely lead to networks more capable of meeting our national security missions.
In order to meet 2025 goals for enhanced peak power (100 kW), specific power (50 kW/L), and reduced cost (3.3 $\$$/kW) in a motor that can operate at ≥ 20,000 rpm, improved soft magnetic materials must be developed. Better performing soft magnetic materials will also enable rare earth free electric motors. In fact, replacement of permanent magnets with soft magnetic materials was highlighted in the Electrical and Electronics Technical Team (EETT) Roadmap as a R&D pathway for meeting 2025 targets. Eddy current losses in conventional soft magnetic materials, such as silicon steel, begin to significantly impact motor efficiency as rotational speed increases. Soft magnetic composites (SMCs), which combine magnetic particles with an insulating matrix to boost electrical resistivity (ρ) and decrease eddy current losses, even at higher operating frequencies (or rotational speeds), are an attractive solution. Today, SMCs are being fabricated with values of ρ ranging between 10-3 to 10-1 μohm∙m, which is significantly higher than 3% silicon steel (~0.05 μohm∙m). The isotropic nature of SMCs is ideally suited for motors with 3D flux paths, such as axial flux motors. Additionally, the manufacturing cost of SMCs is low and they are highly amenable to advanced manufacturing and net-shaping into complex geometries, which further reduces manufacturing costs. There is still significant room for advancement in SMCs, and therefore additional improvements in electrical machine performance. For example, despite the inclusion of a non-magnetic insulating material, the electrical resistivities of SMCs are still far below that of soft ferrites (10 – 108 μohm∙m).
Clays are known for their small particle sizes and complex layer stacking. We show here that the limited dimension of clay particles arises from the lack of long-range order in low-dimensional systems. Because of its weak interlayer interaction, a clay mineral can be treated as two separate low-dimensional systems: a 2D system for individual phyllosilicate layers and a quasi-1D system for layer stacking. The layer stacking or ordering in an interstratified clay can be described by a 1D Ising model while the limited extension of individual phyllosilicate layers can be related to a 2D Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition. This treatment allows for a systematic prediction of clay particle size distributions and layer stacking as controlled by the physical and chemical conditions for mineral growth and transformation. Clay minerals provide a useful model system for studying a transition from a 1D to 3D system in crystal growth and for a nanoscale structural manipulation of a general type of layered materials.
We report the method-of-moments implementation of the electric-field integral equation (EFIE) yields many code-verification challenges due to the various sources of numerical error and their possible interactions. Matters are further complicated by singular integrals, which arise from the presence of a Green's function. To address these singular integrals, an approach is presented in wherein both the solution and Green's function are manufactured. Because the arising equations are poorly conditioned, they are reformulated as a set of constraints for an optimization problem that selects the solution closest to the manufactured solution. In this paper, we demonstrate how, for such practically singular systems of equations, computing the truncation error by inserting the exact solution into the discretized equations cannot detect certain orders of coding errors. On the other hand, the discretization error from the optimal solution is a more sensitive metric that can detect orders less than those of the expected convergence rate.
The effect of crystallography on transgranular chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (TGCISCC) of arc welded 304L austenitic stainless steel is studied on >300 grains along crack paths. Schmid and Taylor factor mismatches across grain boundaries (GBs) reveal that cracks propagate either from a hard to soft grain, which can be explained merely by mechanical arguments, or soft to hard grain. In the latter case, finite element analysis reveals that TGCISCC will arrest at GBs without sufficient mechanical stress, favorable crystallographic orientations, or crack tip corrosion. GB type does not play a significant role in determining TGCISCC cracking behavior nor susceptibility. TGCISCC crack behaviors at GBs are discussed in the context of the competition between mechanical, crystallographic, and corrosion factors.
Picuris Pueblo is a small tribal community in Northern New Mexico consisting of about 306 members and 86 homes. Picuris Pueblo has made advances with renewable energy implementation, including the installation of a 1 megawatt photovoltaic (PV) array. This array has provided the tribe with economic and other benefits that contribute toward the tribe's goal of tribal sovereignty. The tribe is seeking to implement more PV generation as well as battery energy storage systems. Picuris Pueblo is considering different implementation methods, including the formation of a microgrid system. This report studies the potential implementation of a PV and battery storage microgrid system and the associated benefits and challenges. The benefits of a microgrid system include cost savings, increased resiliency, and increased tribal sovereignty and align with the tribe's goals of becoming energy independent and lowering the cost of electricity.
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is the world's largest supply of emergency crude oil. The reserve consists of four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Each site stores crude in deep, underground salt caverns. It is the mission of the SPR's Enhanced Monitoring Program to examine all available data to inform our understanding of each site. This report discusses the monitoring data, processes, and results for each of the four sites for fiscal year 2022.
Mobile sources is a term most commonly used to describe radioactive sources that are used in applications requiring frequent transportation. Such radioactive sources are in common use world-wide where typical applications include radiographic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and oil and gas well logging, among others requiring lesser amounts of radioactivity. This report provides a general overview of mobile sources used for well logging and industrial radiography applications including radionuclides used, equipment, and alternative technologies. Information presented here has been extracted from a larger study on common mobile radiation sources and their use.
As part of the project ? Designing Resilient Communities (DRC) : A Consequence - Based Approach for Grid Investment , ? funded by the United States (US) Department of Energy?s (DOE) Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC), Sandia National Labora tories (Sandia) is partnering with a variety of government , industry, and university participants to develop and test a framework for community resilience planning focused on modernization of the electric grid. This report provides a summary of the section of the project focused on h ardware demonstration of ?resilience nodes? concept . Acknowledgements ? SAG members ? P roject partners ? Project team/management ? P roject sponsors ? O ther stakeholders
The growing demand for bandwidth makes photonic systems a leading candidate for future telecommunication and radar technologies. Integrated photonic systems offer ultra-wideband performance within a small footprint, which can naturally interface with fiber-optic networks for signal transmission. However, it remains challenging to realize narrowband (∼MHz) filters needed for high-performance communications systems using integrated photonics. In this paper, we demonstrate all-silicon microwave-photonic notch filters with 50× higher spectral resolution than previously realized in silicon photonics. This enhanced performance is achieved by utilizing optomechanical interactions to access long-lived phonons, greatly extending available coherence times in silicon. We use a multi-port Brillouin-based optomechanical system to demonstrate ultra-narrowband (2.7 MHz) notch filters with high rejection (57 dB) and frequency tunability over a wide spectral band (6 GHz) within a microwave-photonic link. We accomplish this with an all-silicon waveguide system, using CMOS-compatible fabrication techniques.
Migration of seismic events to deeper depths along basement faults over time has been observed in the wastewater injection sites, which can be correlated spatially and temporally to the propagation or retardation of pressure fronts and corresponding poroelastic response to given operation history. The seismicity rate model has been suggested as a physical indicator for the potential of earthquake nucleation along faults by quantifying poroelastic response to multiple well operations. Our field-scale model indicates that migrating patterns of 2015–2018 seismicity observed near Venus, TX are likely attributed to spatio-temporal evolution of Coulomb stressing rate constrained by the fault permeability. Even after reducing injection volumes since 2015, pore pressure continues to diffuse and steady transfer of elastic energy to the deep fault zone increases stressing rate consistently that can induce more frequent earthquakes at large distance scales. Sensitivity tests with variation in fault permeability show that (1) slow diffusion along a low-permeability fault limits earthquake nucleation near the injection interval or (2) rapid relaxation of pressure buildup within a high-permeability fault, caused by reducing injection volumes, may mitigate the seismic potential promptly.
Hydrogen is an attractive option for energy storage because it can be produced from renewable sources and produces environmentally benign byproducts. However, the volumetric energy density of molecular hydrogen at ambient conditions is low compared to other storage methods like batteries, so it must be compressed to attain a viable energy density for applications such as transportation. Nanoporous materials have attracted significant interest for gas storage because they can attain high storage density at lower pressure than conventional compression. In this work, we examine how to improve the cryogenic hydrogen storage capacity of a series of porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) by controlling the pore size and increasing the surface area by adding functional groups. We also explore tradeoffs in gravimetric and volumetric measures of the hydrogen storage capacity and the effects of temperature swings using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We also consider the effects of adding functional groups to the metal–organic framework NU-1000 to improve its hydrogen storage capacity. We find that highly flexible alkane chains do not improve the hydrogen storage capacity in NU-1000 because they do not extend into the pores; however, rigid chains containing alkyne groups do increase the surface area and hydrogen storage capacity. Finally, we demonstrate that the deliverable capacity of hydrogen in NU-1000 can be increased from 40.0 to 45.3 g/L (at storage conditions of 100 bar and 77 K and desorption conditions of 5 bar and 160 K) by adding long, rigid alkyne chains into the pores.
In this article, we present a general methodology to combine the Discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin (DPG) method in space and time in the context of methods of lines for transient advection–reaction problems. We first introduce a semidiscretization in space with a DPG method redefining the ideas of optimal testing and practicality of the method in this context. Then, we apply the recently developed DPG-based time-marching scheme, which is of exponential-type, to the resulting system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). We also discuss how to efficiently compute the action of the exponential of the matrix coming from the space semidiscretization without assembling the full matrix. Finally, we verify the proposed method for 1D+time advection–reaction problems showing optimal convergence rates for smooth solutions and more stable results for linear conservation laws comparing to the classical exponential integrators.
State chart notations with ‘run to completion’ semantics are popular with engineers for designing controllers that react to environment events with a sequence of state transitions but lack formal refinement and rigorous verification methods. State chart models are typically used to design complex control systems that respond to environmental triggers with a sequential process. The model is usually constructed at a concrete level and verified and validated using animation techniques relying on human judgement. Event-B, on the other hand, is based on refinement from an initial abstraction and is designed to make formal verification by automatic theorem provers feasible. Abstraction and formal verification provide greater assurance that critical (e.g. safety or security) properties are not violated by the control system. In this paper, we introduce a notion of refinement into a ‘run to completion’ state chart modelling notation and leverage Event-B’s tool support for theorem proving. We describe the difficulties in translating ‘run to completion’ semantics into Event-B refinements and suggest a solution. We illustrate our approach and show how models can be validated at different refinement levels using our scenario checker animation tools. We show how critical invariant properties can be verified by proof despite the reactive nature of the system and how behavioural aspects of the system can be verified by testing the expected reactions using a temporal logic, model checking approach. To verify liveness, we outline a proof that the run to completion is deadlock-free and converges to complete the run.
Engineering arrays of active optical centers to control the interaction Hamiltonian between light and matter has been the subject of intense research recently. Collective interaction of atomic arrays with optical photons can give rise to directionally enhanced absorption or emission, which enables engineering of broadband and strong atom-photon interfaces. Here, we report on the observation of long-range cooperative resonances in an array of rare-earth ions controllably implanted into a solid-state lithium niobate micro-ring resonator. We show that cooperative effects can be observed in an ordered ion array extended far beyond the light’s wavelength. We observe enhanced emission from both cavity-induced Purcell enhancement and array-induced collective resonances at cryogenic temperatures. Engineering collective resonances as a paradigm for enhanced light-matter interactions can enable suppression of free-space spontaneous emission. The multi-functionality of lithium niobate hosting rare-earth ions can open possibilities of quantum photonic device engineering for scalable and multiplexed quantum networks.
Numerical algorithms for stiff stochastic differential equations are developed using linear approximations of the fast diffusion processes, under the assumption of decoupling between fast and slow processes. Three numerical schemes are proposed, all of which are based on the linearized formulation albeit with different degrees of approximation. The schemes are of comparable complexity to the classical explicit Euler-Maruyama scheme but can achieve better accuracy at larger time steps in stiff systems. Convergence analysis is conducted for one of the schemes, that shows it to have a strong convergence order of 1/2 and a weak convergence order of 1. Approximations arriving at the other two schemes are discussed. Numerical experiments are carried out to examine the convergence of the schemes proposed on model problems.
We study the problem of designing a distributed observer for an LTI system over a time-varying communication graph. The limited existing work on this topic imposes various restrictions either on the observation model or on the sequence of communication graphs. In contrast, we propose a single-time-scale distributed observer that works under mild assumptions. Specifically, our communication model only requires strong-connectivity to be preserved over nonoverlapping, contiguous intervals that are even allowed to grow unbounded over time. We show that under suitable conditions that bound the growth of such intervals, joint observability is sufficient to track the state of any discrete-time LTI system exponentially fast, at any desired rate. We also develop a variant of our algorithm that is provably robust to worst-case adversarial attacks, provided the sequence of graphs is sufficiently connected over time. The key to our approach is the notion of a 'freshness-index' that keeps track of the age-of-information being diffused across the network. Such indices enable nodes to reject stale estimates of the state, and, in turn, contribute to stability of the error dynamics.
Understanding the adsorption of isolated metal cations from water on to mineral surfaces is critical for toxic waste retention and cleanup in the environment. Heterogeneous nucleation of metal oxyhydroxides and other minerals on material surfaces is key to crystal growth and dissolution. The link connecting these two areas, namely cation dimerization and polymerization, is far less understood. In this work we apply ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to examine the coordination structure of hydroxide-bridged Cu(II) dimers, and the free energy changes associated with Cu(II) dimerization on silica surfaces. The dimer dissociation pathway involves sequential breaking of two Cu2+-OH− bonds, yielding three local minima in the free energy profiles associated with 0-2 OH− bridges between the metal cations, and requires the design of a (to our knowledge) novel reaction coordinate for the simulations. Cu(II) adsorbed on silica surfaces are found to exhibit stronger tendency towards dimerization than when residing in water. Cluster-plus-implicit-solvent methods yield incorrect trends if OH− hydration is not correctly depicted. The predicted free energy landscapes are consistent with fast equilibrium times (seconds) among adsorbed structures, and favor Cu2+ dimer formation on silica surfaces over monomer adsorption.