Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) vibration testing provides the capability to expose a system to a field environment in a laboratory setting, saving both time and money by mitigating the need to perform multiple and costly large-scale field tests. However, MIMO vibration test design is not straightforward oftentimes relying on engineering judgment and multiple test iterations to determine the proper selection of response Degree of Freedom (DOF) and input locations that yield a successful test. This work investigates two DOF selection techniques for MIMO vibration testing to assist with test design, an iterative algorithm introduced in previous work and an Optimal Experiment Design (OED) approach. The iterative-based approach downselects the control set by removing DOF that have the smallest impact on overall error given a target Cross Power Spectral Density matrix and laboratory Frequency Response Function (FRF) matrix. The Optimal Experiment Design (OED) approach is formulated with the laboratory FRF matrix as a convex optimization problem and solved with a gradient-based optimization algorithm that seeks a set of weighted measurement DOF that minimize a measure of model prediction uncertainty. The DOF selection approaches are used to design MIMO vibration tests using candidate finite element models and simulated target environments. The results are generalized and compared to exemplify the quality of the MIMO test using the selected DOF.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD, we refer the reader to User's Manual. Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer_notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high-fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a user’s guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

This document presents tests from the Sierra Structural Mechanics verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/SD code suite and the results of the test checked versus the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra/SD code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

Many engineering design problems can be formulated as decisions between two possible options. This is the case, for example, when a quantity of interest must be maintained below or above some threshold. The threshold thereby determines which input parameters lead to which option, and creates a boundary between the two options known as the decision boundary. This report details a machine learning approach for estimating decision boundaries, based on support vector machines (SVMs), that is amenable to large scale computational simulations. Because it is computationally expensive to evaluate each training sample, the approach iteratively estimates the decision boundary in a manner that requires relatively few training samples to glean useful estimates. The approach is then demonstrated on three example problems from structural mechanics and heat transport.

The inverse methods team provides a set of tools for solving inverse problems in structural dynamics and thermal physics, and also sensor placement optimization via Optimal Experimental Design (OED). These methods are used for designing experiments, model calibration, and verification/validation analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a user’s guide to the input for the three apps that are supported for these methods. Details of input specifications, output options, and optimization parameters are included.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD, we refer the reader to User's Manual. Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer_notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

The How To Manual supplements the User’s Manual and the Theory Manual. The goal of the How To Manual is to reduce learning time for complex end to end analyses. These documents are intended to be used together. See the User’s Manual for a complete list of the options for a solution case. All the examples are part of the Sierra/SD test suite. Each runs as is. The organization is similar to the other documents: How to run, Commands, Solution cases, Materials, Elements, Boundary conditions, and then Contact. The table of contents and index are indispensable. The Geometric Rigid Body Modes section is shared with the Users Manual.

The inverse methods team provides a set of tools for solving inverse problems in structural dynamics and thermal physics, and also sensor placement optimization via Optimal Experimental Design (OED). These methods are used for designing experiments, model calibration, and verfication/validation analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a user's guide to the input for the three apps that are supported for these methods. Details of input specifications, output options, and optimization parameters are included.

The concept of a nonlocal elastic metasurface has been recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated in Zhu et al. (2020). When implemented in the form of a total-internal-reflection (TIR) interface, the metasurface can act as an elastic wave barrier that is impenetrable to deep subwavelength waves over an exceptionally wide frequency band. The underlying physical mechanism capable of delivering this broadband subwavelength performance relies on an intentionally nonlocal design that leverages long-range connections between the units forming the fundamental supercell. This paper explores the design and application of a nonlocal TIR metasurface to achieve broadband passive vibration isolation in a structural assembly made of multiple dissimilar elastic waveguides. The specific structural system comprises shell, plate, and beam waveguides, and can be seen as a prototypical structure emulating mechanical assemblies of practical interest for many engineering applications. The study also reports the results of an experimental investigation that confirms the significant vibration isolation capabilities afforded by the embedded nonlocal TIR metasurface. These results are particularly remarkable because they show that the performance of the nonlocal metasurface is preserved when applied to a complex structural assembly and under non-ideal incidence conditions of the incoming wave, hence significantly extending the validity of the results presented in Zhu et al. (2020). Results also confirm that, under proper conditions, the original concept of a planar metasurface can be morphed into a curved interface while still preserving full wave control capabilities.

This document presents tests from the Sierra Structural Mechanics verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/SD code suite and the results of the test checked versus the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra/SD code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD, we refer the reader to User's Manual. Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer_notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

The How To Manual supplements the User’s Manual and the Theory Manual. The goal of the How To Manual is to reduce learning time for complex end to end analyses. These documents are intended to be used together. See the User’s Manual for a complete list of the options for a solution case. All the examples are part of the Sierra/SD test suite. Each runs as is. The organization is similar to the other documents: How to run, Commands, Solution cases, Materials, Elements, Boundary conditions, and then Contact. The table of contents and index are indispensable. The Geometric Rigid Body Modes section is shared with the Users Manual.

This document presents tests from the Sierra Structural Mechanics verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/SD code suite and the results of the test checked versus the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra/SD code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high-fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a user's guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD, we refer the reader to User's Manual. Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer_notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

The How To Manual supplements the User’s Manual and the Theory Manual. The goal of the How To Manual is to reduce learning time for complex end to end analyses. These documents are intended to be used together. See the User’s Manual for a complete list of the options for a solution case. All the examples are part of the Sierra/SD test suite. Each runs as is. The organization is similar to the other documents: How to run, Commands, Solution cases, Materials, Elements, Boundary conditions, and then Contact. The table of contents and index are indispensable. The Geometric Rigid Body Modes section is shared with the Users Manual.

Metamaterials are artificial structures that can manipulate and control sound waves in ways not possible with conventional materials. While much effort has been undertaken to widen the bandgaps produced by these materials through design of heterogeneities within unit cells, comparatively little work has considered the effect of engineering heterogeneities at the structural scale by combining different types of unit cells. In this paper, we use the relaxed micromorphic model to study wave propagation in heterogeneous metastructures composed of different unit cells. We first establish the efficacy of the relaxed micromorphic model for capturing the salient characteristics of dispersive wave propagation through comparisons with direct numerical simulations for two classes of metamaterial unit cells: namely phononic crystals and locally resonant metamaterials. We then use this model to demonstrate how spatially arranging multiple unit cells into metastructures can lead to tailored and unique properties such as spatially-dependent broadband wave attenuation, rainbow trapping, and pulse shaping. In the case of the broadband wave attenuation application, we show that by building layered metastructures from different metamaterial unit cells, we can slow down or stop wave packets in an enlarged frequency range, while letting other frequencies through. In the case of the rainbow-trapping application, we show that spatial arrangements of different unit cells can be designed to progressively slow down and eventually stop waves with different frequencies at different spatial locations. Finally, in the case of the pulse-shaping application, our results show that heterogeneous metastructures can be designed to tailor the spatial profile of a propagating wave packet. Collectively, these results show the versatility of the relaxed micromorphic model for effectively and accurately simulating wave propagation in heterogeneous metastructures, and how this model can be used to design heterogeneous metastructures with tailored wave propagation functionalities.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high-fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a user’s guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD, we refer the reader to User's Manual. Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer_notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

The How To Manual supplements the User’s Manual and the Theory Manual. The goal of the How To Manual is to reduce learning time for complex end to end analyses. These documents are intended to be used together. See the User’s Manual for a complete list of the options for a solution case. All the examples are part of the Sierra/SD test suite. Each runs as is. The organization is similar to the other documents: How to run, Commands, Solution cases, Materials, Elements, Boundary conditions, and then Contact. The table of contents and index are indispensable. The Geometric Rigid Body Modes section is shared with the Users Manual.

This document presents tests from the Sierra Structural Mechanics verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/SD code suite and the results of the test checked versus the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra/SD code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

With the rapid proliferation of additive manufacturing and 3D printing technologies, architected cellular solids including truss-like 3D lattice topologies offer the opportunity to program the effective material response through topological design at the mesoscale. The present report summarizes several of the key findings from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. The program set out to explore novel lattice topologies that can be designed to control, redirect, or dissipate energy from one or multiple insult environments relevant to Sandia missions, including crush, shock/impact, vibration, thermal, etc. In the first 4 sections, we document four novel lattice topologies stemming from this study: coulombic lattices, multi-morphology lattices, interpenetrating lattices, and pore-modified gyroid cellular solids, each with unique properties that had not been achieved by existing cellular/lattice metamaterials. The fifth section explores how unintentional lattice imperfections stemming from the manufacturing process, primarily sur face roughness in the case of laser powder bed fusion, serve to cause stochastic response but that in some cases such as elastic response the stochastic behavior is homogenized through the adoption of lattices. In the sixth section we explore a novel neural network screening process that allows such stocastic variability to be predicted. In the last three sections, we explore considerations of computational design of lattices. Specifically, in section 7 using a novel generative optimization scheme to design novel pareto-optimal lattices for multi-objective environments. In section 8, we use computational design to optimize a metallic lattice structure to absorb impact energy for a 1000 ft/s impact. And in section 9, we develop a modified micromorphic continuum model to solve wave propagation problems in lattices efficiently.

Constructing accurate statistical models of critical system responses typically requires an enormous amount of data from physical experiments or numerical simulations. Unfortunately, data generation is often expensive and time consuming. To streamline the data generation process, optimal experimental design determines the 'best' allocation of experiments with respect to a criterion that measures the ability to estimate some important aspect of an assumed statistical model. While optimal design has a vast literature, few researchers have developed design paradigms targeting tail statistics, such as quantiles. In this project, we tailored and extended traditional design paradigms to target distribution tails. Our approach included (i) the development of new optimality criteria to shape the distribution of prediction variances, (ii) the development of novel risk-adapted surrogate models that provably overestimate certain statistics including the probability of exceeding a threshold, and (iii) the asymptotic analysis of regression approaches that target tail statistics such as superquantile regression. To accompany our theoretical contributions, we released implementations of our methods for surrogate modeling and design of experiments in two complementary open source software packages, the ROL/OED Toolkit and PyApprox.