# Publications

## Multi-mode quasi-static excitation for systems with nonlinear joints

Finite element models can be used to model and predict the hysteresis and energy dissipation exhibited by nonlinear joints in structures. As a result of the nonlinearity, the frequency and damping of a mode is dependent on excitation amplitude, and when the modes remain uncoupled, quasi-static modal analysis has been shown to efficiently predict this behavior. However, in some cases the modes have been observed to couple such that the frequency and damping of one mode is dependent on the amplitude of other modes. To model the interactions between modes, one must integrate the dynamic equations in time, which is several orders of magnitude more expensive than quasi-static analysis. This work explores an alternative where quasi-static forces are applied in the shapes of two or more modes of vibration simultaneously, and the resulting loadâ€“displacement curves are used to deduce the effect of other modes on the effective frequency and damping of the mode in question. This methodology is demonstrated on a simple 2D cantilever beam structure with a single bolted joint which exhibits micro-slip nonlinearity over a range of vibration amplitudes. The predicted frequency and damping are compared with those extracted from a few expensive dynamic simulations of the structure, showing that the quasi-static approach produces reasonable albeit highly conservative bounds on the observed dynamics. This framework is also demonstrated on a 3D structure where dynamic simulations are infeasible.