We report pulsed dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in He–H2O and He–H2O–O2 mixtures are studied in near atmospheric conditions using temporally and spatially resolved quantitative 2D imaging of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). The primary goal was to detect and quantify the production of these strongly oxidative species in water-laden helium discharges in a DBD jet configuration, which is of interest for biomedical applications such as disinfection of surfaces and treatment of biological samples. Hydroxyl profiles are obtained by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements using 282 nm laser excitation. Hydrogen peroxide profiles are measured by photo-fragmentation LIF (PF-LIF), which involves photo-dissociating H2O2 into OH with a 212.8 nm laser sheet and detecting the OH fragments by LIF. The H2O2 profiles are calibrated by measuring PF-LIF profiles in a reference mixture of He seeded with a known amount of H2O2 . OH profiles are calibrated by measuring OH-radical decay times and comparing these with predictions from a chemical kinetics model. Two different burst discharge modes with five and ten pulses per burst are studied, both with a burst repetition rate of 50 Hz. In both cases, dynamics of OH and H2O2 distributions in the afterglow of the discharge are investigated. Gas temperatures determined from the OH-LIF spectra indicate that gas heating due to the plasma is insignificant. The addition of 5% O2 in the He admixture decreases the OH densities and increases the H2O2 densities. The increased coupled energy in the ten-pulse discharge increases OH and H2O2 mole fractions, except for the H2O2 in the He–H2O–O2 mixture which is relatively insensitive to the additional pulses.
The methyl radical plays a central role in plasma-assisted hydrocarbon chemistry but is challenging to detect due to its high reactivity and strongly pre-dissociative electronically excited states. In this work, we report the development of a photo-fragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) diagnostic for quantitative 2D imaging of methyl profiles in a plasma. This technique provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of local methyl distributions, including in near-surface regions that are important for plasma-surface interactions such as plasma-assisted catalysis. The technique relies on photo-dissociation of methyl by the fifth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 212.8 nm to produce CH fragments. These photofragments are then detected with LIF imaging by exciting a transition in the B-X(0, 0) band of CH with a second laser at 390 nm. Fluorescence from the overlapping A-X(0, 0), A-X(1, 1), and B-X(0, 1) bands of CH is detected near 430 nm with the A-state populated by collisional B-A electronic energy transfer. This non-resonant detection scheme enables interrogation close to a surface. The PF-LIF diagnostic is calibrated by producing a known amount of methyl through photo-dissociation of acetone vapor in a calibration gas mixture. We demonstrate PF-LIF imaging of methyl production in methane-containing nanosecond pulsed plasmas impinging on dielectric surfaces. Absolute calibration of the diagnostic is demonstrated in a diffuse, plane-to-plane discharge. Measured profiles show a relatively uniform distribution of up to 30 ppm of methyl. Relative methyl measurements in a filamentary plane-to-plane discharge and a plasma jet reveal highly localized intense production of methyl. The utility of the PF-LIF technique is further demonstrated by combining methyl measurements with formaldehyde LIF imaging to capture spatiotemporal correlations between methyl and formaldehyde, which is an important intermediate species in plasma-assisted oxidative coupling of methane.
We report time-resolved, absolute number densities of metastable N2(A3Σu+, v = 0, 1) molecules, ground state N2 and H atoms, and rotational–translational temperature have been measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence in diffuse N2 and N2 –H2 plasmas during and after a nanosecond pulse discharge burst. Comparison of the measurement results with the kinetic modeling predictions, specifically the significant reduction of the N2(A3Σu+) populations and the rate of N atom generation during the burst, suggests that these two trends are related. The slow N atom decay in the afterglow, on a time scale longer than the discharge burst, demonstrates that the latter trend is not affected by N atom recombination, diffusion to the walls, or convection with the flow. This leads to the conclusion that the energy pooling in collisions of N2(A3Σu+) molecules is a major channel of N2 dissociation in electric discharges where a significant fraction of the input energy goes to electronic excitation of N2. Additional measurements in a 1% H2 –N2 mixture demonstrate a further significant reduction of N2(A3Σu+, v = 0, 1) populations, due to the rapid quenching by H atoms accumulating in the plasma. Comparison with the modeling predictions suggests that the N2(A3Σu+) molecules may be initially formed in the highly vibrationally excited states. The reduction of the N2(A3Σu+) number density also diminishes the contribution of the energy pooling process into N2 dissociation, thus reducing the N atom number density. The rate of N atom generation during the burst also decreases, due to its strong coupling to N2(A3Σu+, v) populations. On the other hand, the rate of H atom generation, produced predominantly by the dissociative quenching of the excited electronic states of N2 by H2, remains about the same during the burst, resulting in a nearly linear rise in the H atom number density. Comparison of the kinetic model predictions with the experimental results suggests that the yield of H atoms during the quenching of the excited electronic state of N2 by molecular H2 is significantly less than 100%. The present results quantify the yield of N and H atoms in high-pressure H2 –N2 plasmas, which have significant potential for ammonia generation using plasma-assisted catalysis
We present an autodifferentiable spectral modeling of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. This model enables a fully Bayesian inference of the high-dispersion data to fit the ab initio line-by-line spectral computation to the observed spectrum by combining it with the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo in recent probabilistic programming languages. An open-source code, ExoJAX (https://github.com/HajimeKawahara/exojax), developed in this study, was written in Python using the GPU/TPU compatible package for automatic differentiation and accelerated linear algebra, JAX. We validated the model by comparing it with existing opacity calculators and a radiative transfer code and found reasonable agreements for the output. As a demonstration, we analyzed the high-dispersion spectrum of a nearby brown dwarf, Luhman 16 A, and found that a model including water, carbon monoxide, and H2/He collision-induced absorption was well fitted to the observed spectrum (R = 105 and 2.28-2.30 μm). As a result, we found that T0=1295-32+35 K at 1 bar and C/O = 0.62 ± 0.03, which is slightly higher than the solar value. This work demonstrates the potential of a full Bayesian analysis of brown dwarfs and exoplanets as observed by high-dispersion spectrographs and also directly imaged exoplanets as observed by high-dispersion coronagraphy.
NO planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) is used to obtain images of laser-induced breakdown plasma plumes in NO-seeded nitrogen and dry air at near atmospheric pressure. Single-shot PLIF-images show that the plume development 5-50 μs after the breakdown pulse is fairly reproducible shot-to-shot, although the plume becomes increasingly stochastic on longer timescales, 100-500 μs. The stochastic behavior of the plume is quantified using probability distributions of the loci of the plume boundary. Analysis of the single-shot images indicates that the mixing of the plume with ambient gas on sub-ms time scale is insignificant. The induced flow velocity in the plume is fairly low, up to 30 m s-1, suggesting that laser breakdowns are ineffective for mixing enhancement in high speed flows. The ensemble-averaged PLIF images indicate the evolution of the plume from an initially elongated shape to near-spherical to toroidal shape, with a subsequent radial expansion and formation of an axial jet in the center. Temperature distributions in the plume in air are obtained from the NO PLIF images, using two rotational transitions in the NO(X, v′ = 0 → A, v″ = 0) band, J″ = 6.5 and 12.5 of the QR12 + Q2 branch. The results indicate that the temperature in the plume remains high, above 1000 K, for approximately 100 μs, after which it decays gradually, to below 500 K at 500 μs. The residual NO fraction in the plume is ∼0.1%, indicating that repetitive laser-assisted ignition may result in significant NO-generation. These measured temperature and velocity distributions can be used for detailed validation of kinetic models of laser-induced breakdown and assessment of their predictive capability.
van de Steeg, Alex v.; Vialetto, Luca V.; Silva, A.F.S.; Peeters, Floran P.; van den Bekerom, Dirk C.; Gatti, Nicola G.; Diomede, Paola D.; van de Sanden, Richard v.; van Rooij, Gerard v.
In this paper, the counterintuitive and largely unknown Raman activity of oxygen atoms is evaluated for its capacity to determine absolute densities in gases with significant O-density. The study involves microwave plasma to generate a self-calibrating mixture and establish accurate cross sections for the and transitions. The approach requires conservation of stoichiometry, confirmed within experimental uncertainty by a 1D fluid model. The measurements yield and , and the detection limit is estimated to be for systems without other scattering species.
Accurate synthetic spectra that rely on large Line-By-Line (LBL)-databases are used in a wide range of applications such as high temperature combustion, atmospheric re-entry, planetary surveillance and laboratory plasmas. Conventionally synthetic spectra are calculated by computing a lineshape for every spectral line in the database and adding those together, which may take multiple hours for large databases. In this paper we propose a new approach for spectral synthesis based on an integral transform: the synthetic spectrum is calculated as the integral over the product of a Voigt profile and a newly proposed three-dimensional “lineshape distribution function”, which is a function of spectral position and Gaussian- & Lorentzian width coordinates. A fast discrete version of this transform based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is proposed, which improves performance compared to the conventional approach by several orders of magnitude while maintaining accuracy. Strategies that minimize the discretization error are discussed. A Python implementation of the method is compared against state-of-the-art spectral code RADIS, and is since adopted as RADIS's default synthesis method. The synthesis of a benchmark CO2 spectrum consisting of 1.8 M spectral lines and 200k spectral points took only 3.1 s using the proposed method (1011 lines × spectral points/s), a factor ~300 improvement over the state-of-the-art, with the relative improvement generally increasing for higher number of lines and/or number of spectral points. Finally, an experimental GPU-implementation of the method was also benchmarked, which demonstrated another 2~3 orders performance increase, achieving up to 5 ∙ 1014 lines × spectral points/s.