Michael P. Frank

Cognitive & Emerging Computing

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Cognitive & Emerging Computing


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(505) 284-4103

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico
P.O. Box 5800
Albuquerque, NM 87185-1322


Hello, I’m currently (since Aug. 2015) a senior member of the technical staff at Sandia National Labs with a position designation of R&D S&E (Research & Development / Science & Engineering), Computer Science, with a primary appointment in the Cognitive & Emerging Computing department (1421) within the Extreme-Scale Computing Group (1420) at the Center for Computing Research (1400) in the Science & Technology division (1000). (My business card lists my title as “Senior Engineering Scientist,” which seems suitably ambiguous.) My office is in the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) building.

My previous position spanning most years in the period 2004-2015, was as a faculty member in the ECE Department at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering. This overlapped with a research associate position in the FAMU Physics Department from 2009-2012. Before that, in 1999-2004, I was an assistant professor in the CISE Department at the University of Florida, and also held an affiliate position in the ECE Department there. Some of my old research webpages are still available (e.g., a page at FSU, a rehosted page from UF). I did my graduate work in the MIT EECS program in the 1990s, and my undergrad in the Symbolic Systems program at Stanford.

Image of Photomicrograph-of-a-reversible-memory-cell
Reversible memory cell and test circuit. 
This is the first physical embodiment of the novel Ballistic Asynchronous Reversible Computing (BARC) model of computation developed at Sandia.  See here for additional images and details, and see slide 16 of this talk for a rough schematic. Approved for public release Aug. 2020, SAND2020-8005 O.

My primary research interests lie in the areas of:

  • Techniques for energy-efficient computing, with an emphasis on reversible computing, adiabatic circuits, and related methods;
  • Fundamental physical limits of computing (specially limits from thermodynamics);
  • Unconventional computer architectures, in particular, ones which can help us more closely approach the aforementioned fundamental limits;
  • Distributed and market-based computing systems;
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning.

I’ve recently been quoted in articles relating to reversible computing in Scientific American and the Communications of the ACM.

Newest research products:

Over the last few years, the section after this one (“Overview of Notable Recent Work”) has grown rather large and it’s become difficult to find the newest items.  So, here’s a shorter reverse-chronological list of items since the start of 2019.  For a more complete list of my Sandia publications, scroll all the way to the bottom of this page.


  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) FutureTech group seminar (June. 2024):
    • The Economic Case for Reversible Computing Technology“, invited talk (slides)




Cover of Entropy 23(6), June 2021



Overview of some notable recent work:

Most of my research relates to reversible computing, and in Sep. 2017, a general article that I produced on the subject was published in IEEE Spectrum (based on a longer manuscript).  Also, in Oct. 2017, I delivered a publicly-available lecture on the subject at the Stanford EE department’s Computer Systems Colloquium.  I also authored/edited the material discussing reversible computing (and co-edited the material on other emerging computing paradigms) that appeared in the Beyond CMOS chapter of the 2017-2022 (so far) editions of the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (successor to the long-running International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors).  I also contributed to the new chapter on Cryogenic Electronics and Quantum Information Processing, which includes some discussion of reversible superconducting logics.  Most recently, I delivered invited talks on reversible computing at the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing (videoslides) in Nov. 2018, and the IEEE International Nanodevices & Computing Conference (slides) in Apr. 2019.

I’ve been working lately to clarify the theoretical foundations of reversible computing, and to generalize the concept of reversible computing in useful ways.  For example, I recently presented a paper titled “Physical Foundations of Landauer’s Principle” (for which slides and an extended postprint are publicly available) at the 2018 Reversible Computation conference.  This paper shows how Landauer’s Principle (relating information loss from a computation to entropy increase) can be rigorously inferred from fundamental principles of statistical physics that have been known for over a century, and emphasizes the essential role that correlations (in the sense of mutual information) play in its derivation.  It also discusses how to appropriately generalize Landauer’s principle and reversible computing to account for the thermodynamic implications of performing stochastic (randomizing) computational operations.

In 2017, I presented a paper on what I call Generalized Reversible Computing (GRC) (a preprint and slides and a longer manuscript are available) at the Reversible Computation conference.  This paper calls attention to the fact that the traditional definition of logical reversibility is insufficiently general, because it ignores the reversibility of operations that are only conditionally reversible, but whose preconditions for reversibility are satisfied.  Compared with the traditional theory of unconditionally reversible computing, GRC is more well-suited to use as the basis for adiabatic circuit design, and in general facilitates simplified designs for reversible hardware that can’t be properly modeled within traditional reversible computing theory.

Since late 2016, I’ve also been developing a new concept of Asynchronous (Ballistic) Reversible Computing (ARC or ABRC)–which I formally presented (preprintslidesvideo, publication) at the 2017 Rebooting Computing conference–which potentially could eliminate a lot of the clocking-related overheads that are associated with traditional adiabatic models of reversible computing, while also potentially operating at higher speeds, and avoiding the chaotic instabilities that are often associated with synchronous ballistic models of reversible computing, such as the classic Fredkin/Toffoli Billiard Ball Model.  An effort to implement the ABRC model using single flux quanta (SFQ) in Josephson-junction based superconducting circuits is currently starting up at Sandia.  A preliminary report (posterpreprint) on my work-in-progress on this project has been published.  New as of July 2019: We now have our first working circuit designs (talkposterpreprint)!!

Earlier in 2016, I explored another concept for clockless reversible computing called Chaotic Logic (CL) (papertalksimulator), in which we tailor the nonlinear interactions between individual degrees of freedom in a conservative dynamical system in such a way that the natural chaotic dynamics of the system encodes a desired computation in its long-term average behavior.  Our preliminary simulation results appear to confirm our prediction that, using Chaotic Logic, reliable computation can still be carried out even using very tiny logic signal energies (at and even below the thermal noise floor).

Prior to all this, in Fall of 2015, I participated in inter-institutional discussions which led up to the White House’s announcement of a new Grand Challenge for future computing.  I provided input to the process of drafting the IEEE White Paper which supported (and helped inspire) this announcement.  An accompanying poster was also presented at the 4th IEEE Rebooting Computing Summit (in Dec. 2015) and some related papers were presented at the IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing (ICRC 2016) (in Oct. 2016).  The general vision there was for a new type of future computer which harnesses nonlinear dynamical behavior of nanodevices operating “at the edge of chaos” to perform brain-inspired functions (such as Deep Learning) in a more energy-efficient way, by stepping outside the traditional paradigm of (irreversible) Boolean logic.  This broad vision subsumes reversible logic, neural-inspired computing, analog circuits and other computing approaches that have yet to be defined.

Pre-Sandia papers and talks

Following are some publications, manuscripts and presentations from my pre-Sandia years (therefore no SAND numbers), listed most recent first.  My more recent publications, through Sandia, are shown under “Selected Publications and Presentations” at the bottom of this page.


  • Michael P. Frank, “The Path to Discovering the Next Great Device Technology,” job talk presented at Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, May 20, 2015.


  • Michael P. Frank, “NDCoin:  A Cryptocurrency-Based Distributed Computing Market,” ECE Graduate Seminar, presented Sep. 9th, 2014, in the Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL.  PDF of talk slides.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Decentralized Virtual Currencies:  A Very Far-Reaching Innovation (The Case for Regulatory Permissiveness),” invited talk at the Florida Office of Financial Regulation, Tallahassee, FL, July 30, 2014.  Handout of talk slides (2/page) in PDF.
  • Michael P. Frank, Kamal E. Amin, Okenwa I. Okoli, Sungmoon Jung, Robert A. Van Engelen, and Chiang Shih, “Expanding and Improving the Integration of Multidisciplinary Projects in a Capstone Senior Design Course:  Experience Gained and Future Plans,” paper ID #9523 in the Proceedings of the 121st ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, June 15-18, 2014.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Reversible Computing:  A Cross-Disciplinary Introduction,” invited talk presented remotely to the Beyond Moore Research Challenge meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, March 10th, 2014.  Slides in PowerPointPDF.
  • David Mondrus and Michael Frank, “The Promise of Crypto (Part 2 of 2),” Bitcoin Magazine, Feb. 13, 2014.  https://bitcoinmagazine.com/10137/promise-crypto-part-2-2/
  • Michael P. Frank and David Mondrus, “Introducing NDcoin:  A Cryptocoin-Based Concept for Incentivized, Distributed Nondeterministic Computation,” draft whitepaper, Feb. 1st, 2014.  PDF at http://ta.gd/NDcoin.
  • Luke Muehlhauser and Michael P. Frank, “Mike Frank on reversible computing,” interview, Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Jan. 31st, 2014.  http://intelligence.org/2014/01/31/mike-frank-on-reversible-computing/
  • Michael P. Frank, “Digital Cash, Bitcoin, and the Distributed Consensus Revolution,” ECE Graduate Seminar, presented Jan. 14, 2014, in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL.  PDF of talk slides.



  • Darryl W. McGowan, Jr., David R. Grosby, Michael P. Frank, Sachin Junnarkar, and Ray H. O’Neal, Jr., “Field Programmable Gate Array based Front-End Data Acquisition Module for the COSMICi Astroparticle Telescope System,” poster presented at Centenary Symposium 2012: Discovery of Cosmic Rays, Denver, CO, June 26-28, 2012.  Abstracts at: https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?uid=214129.
  • Darryl W. McGowan Jr., David R. Grosby, Michael P. Frank, Sachin Junnarkar, Ray H. O’Neal Jr., “Field Programmable Gate Array based Front-End Data Acquisition Module for the COSMICi Astroparticle Telescope System,” preprint for journal publication, Apr. 2012, arXiv:1204.5104 (PDF available).
  • Michael P. Frank, “Towards a More General Model of Reversible Logic Hardware,” invited talk presented at the Superconducting Electronics Approaching the Landauer Limit and Reversibility (SEALeR) workshop, sponsored by NSA/ARO, Annapolis, MD, Mar. 15-16, 2012.  PDF of talk slides.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Space-Efficient Quantum Computer Simulators,” invited talk presented at the Laboratory for Physical Sciences at College Park, MD (revised version of SPIE 2009 talk), Mar. 14, 2012.  PDF of talk slides.


  • Michael P. Frank, “Controlling application-specific hardware in C on Altera FPGAs: a case study in embedded systems development,” presented at the ECE Graduate Seminar, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Oct. 4th, 2011.  Presentation PDF (2 MB).


  • Michael P. Frank, Sachin S. Junnarkar, Triesha Fagan, Ray H. O’Neal, Jr., and Helio Takai, “Design of a Wireless Sensor Network with Nanosecond Time Resolution for Mapping of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Shower Events,” presented in Session 1: Sensor Networks I of Conference 7706: Wireless Sensing, Localization, and Processing V, in the Information Systems and Networks: Processing, Fusion, and Knowledge Generation program track at the SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposium, Orlando, FL, April 5-9, 2010, and to be published in the Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7706, paper 7706-2 (2010).  Preprint PDF (597 KB).  Presentation PDF (6.4 MB).


  • Frank, M.P. and O’Neal, R.H., “The COSMICi Project: Wireless sensor networks for measuring direction of high-energy cosmic-ray showers,” presented at the 2009 MARIACHI workshop, Jul. 6-10, SUNY Stony Brook, NY.  Presentation PDF (745 KB).
  • Michael P. Frank, Liviu Oniciuc, Uwe H. Meyer-Baese, and Irinel Chiorescu, “A space-efficient quantum computer simulator suitable for high-speed FPGA implementation,” Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7342, Quantum Information and Computation VII, E. J. Donkor, A. R. Pirich, and H. E. Brandt, eds., 734203, 2009.  Manuscript as submitted.
  • Michael P. Frank, Uwe H. Meyer-Baese, Irinel Chiorescu, Liviu Oniciuc, and Robert A. van Engelen, “Space-Efficient Simulation of Quantum Computers,” 47th ACMSE, Mar. 2009, Manuscriptslides.




  • Maojiao He, Michael P. Frank, and Huikai Xie, “CMOS-MEMS Resonator as a Signal Generator for Fully-Adiabatic Logic Circuits,” invited paper presented in the MEMS I session of the Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems II conference at the SPIE International Symposium on Smart Materials, Nano-, and Micro-Smart Systems, held 12-15 Dec. 2004, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.  Published in Proceedings of SPIE, vol. #5649, paper #18.  PDF file of paper manuscript, http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/Maojiao-SPIE-5649-18.pdf.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Nanocomputing Technology Requirements,” tutorial presented Nov. 23, 2004 at the IASTED International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Technology (ACST 2004), St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.  PDF file of talk slides, 2 per page: http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/IASTED-Nanocomp-Tutorial.pdf.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Physics as Computing,” talk presented Wed. Sep. 15, 2004 at the Quantum Computation for Physical Modeling (QCPM) Workshop, Martha’s Vineyard, MA, Sponsored by AFOSR.  Talk abstract: http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/QCPM-04/QCPM04-abstract.pdf. Talk slides, 2 per page:  http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/QCPM-04/QCPM04-slides.pdf.
  • Michael P. Frank, “The Future of Computing,” Graduate Seminar Talk, FAMU-FSU ECE Dept., Sep. 2, 2004.  Talk slides, 6 per page: http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/ECE-seminar/ECEsem-6up.pdf.
  • Two lectures presented at the Computing Beyond Silicon Summer School at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, July ’04:  “Physical Limits of Computing: A Brief Introduction,” http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/Caltech-CBSSS/PhysComp.ppt. “Reversible Computing: A Brief Introduction,” http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/Caltech-CBSSS/RevComp.ppt.
  • Venkiteswaran Anantharam, Maojiao He, Krishna Natarajan, Huikai Xie, and Michael P. Frank, “Driving Fully-Adiabatic Logic Circuits Using Custom High-Q MEMS Resonators,” paper presented at the 2004 workshop on Methodologies for Low Power Design (MLPD ’04), part of the Embedded Systems and Applications (ESA ’04) conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 21-24, 2004.  Published in Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Systems & Applications, ESA ’04, H.R. Arabnia, M. Guo, & L. T. Yang, eds., CSREA Press, pp. 5-11.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Adiabatic, Reversible Computing for Ultra-Power-Efficient DSP,” invited presentation at Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX, June 4, 2004.
  • Michael P. Frank, “A Technology-Independent Model of Nanoscale Logic Devices,” Technical Proceedings of the 2004 Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, sponsored by NSTI, held in Boston, Mar. 7-11, 2004.  Volume 2, chapter 2, pages 29-32.
  • Michael P. Frank and Huikai Xie, UF patent application #11550, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/570,170, “High-Q MEMS Resonators and Adiabatic Logic Circuits Using the Same,” Feb. 2004
  • Nanocomputer Systems Engineering,” invited talk delivered at the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, FAMU/FSU College of Engineering, Feb. 25, 2004.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Reversible Computing,” Developer 2.0 programmers’ magazine (affiliated w. Dr. Dobb’s Journal), India, Jan. 2004.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Nanocomputers-Theoretical Models,” invited article (review chapter) in the Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hari Singh Nalwa, ed., American Scientific Publishers, 2004.  Manuscript at http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/revcomp/Nanocomputers.doc.


  • Pradeep Padala and Michael P. Frank, “Design of a Self-evolving Scalable Matching Network for OCEAN,” poster paper accepted at the International Symposium on High-Performance Computing (HiPC’03), Dec. 2003.
  • Pradeep Padala, Cyrus Harrison, Nicholas Pelfort, Erwin Jansen, Michael P. Frank and Chaitanya Chokkareddy, “OCEAN: The Open Computation Exchange and Arbitration Network, A Market Approach to Meta computing,” in the proceedings of the International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing (ISPDC’03), Oct. 2003.
  • The Imminent Practicality of Reversible Computing,” invited talk delivered at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, Aug. 28, 2003.  Powerpoint file at http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/revcomp/talks/IBM-Talk.ppt.
  • Shashank Shetty, Pradeep Padala and Michael P. Frank. “A Survey of Market-Based Approaches to Distributed Computing,” University of Florida, Technical Report TR03-013, Aug, 2003.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Common Mistakes in Adiabatic Logic Design and How to Avoid Them,” paper presented at Methodologies in Low-Power Design Workshop, part of the International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, at the International Multiconference in Computer Science & Computer Engineering, held in Las Vegas, Nevada, June 23-26, 2003.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Nanocomputer Systems Engineering,” paper presented at the NanoEngineering World Forum, sponsored by the International Engineering Consortium, held in Marlborough, MA, June 23-25, 2003.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Reversible Computing:  Quantum Computing’s Practical Cousin,” invited general introductory lecture presented at the James H. Simons Foundation Conference on Quantum and Reversible Computing, Stony Brook, NY, May 28-31, 2003.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Nanocomputer Systems Engineering,” proceedings of the 2003 Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, held Feb. 23-27, 2003, San Francisco, CA.
  • Michael P. Frank and Huikai Xie, “Custom micro-electromechanical oscillator for generating custom-shaped resonant energy-recovering AC voltage waveforms for driving adiabatic circuits and other applications,” disclosure to University of Florida Office of Technology Licensing, 2003.


  • Physical Computing Theory, Ultimate Models, and the Tight Church’s Thesis: A More Accurate Complexity Theory for Future Nanocomputing,” invited talk given to the Algorithms & Theory Club, CISE dept., UF, Tue., Sep. 17, 2002.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Physical Limits of Computing,” Computing in Science and Engineering, 4(3):16-25, IEEE/AIP, May/June 2002.
  • Michael Frank and DoRon Motter, “Quantum Computer Architectures for Physical Simulations,” invited talk presented by Frank at the Quantum Computation for Physical Modeling workshop sponsored by the Air Force research labs, held at Martha’s Vineyard, Wed., May 8, 2002. 
  • Systems Engineering for Reversible Quantum Nanocomputers,” invited talk given at University of Southern California, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (Architecture), Wed., May 1, 2002.
  • Cost/Performance/Power Efficiency of Adiabatic Circuits, as a function of Device On/Off Power Ratios,” talk given in the Brown Bag Seminar series, ECE Dept., UF, March 2002. 
  • Lecture on adiabatic circuits, untitled guest lecture delivered in Dr. Bill Eisenstadt’s VLSI class, ECE dept., Spr. 2002.
  • Cost/Performance/Power tradeoffs in Adiabatic Logic,” talk given in the Brown Bag Seminar, ECE Dept., UF, March 2002.
  • Can Hintikka’s Independence-Friendly Logic Be Used to Prove the Non-Existence of the Reals?,” talk given at the Logic Seminar, Math Dept., UF, March 2002.
  • Sama Govindaramanujam, Cyrus Harrison, Erwin Jansen, Sriram Kumar Nallan, Sahib Singh, and Michael P. Frank, “Locating Suitable Resources in OCEAN,” paper accepted for poster presentation at HiPC (High-Performance Computing), 2002.
  • Michael P. Frank, “Efficient, two-level, fully-adiabatic, pipelineable logic family,” disclosure to University of Florida Office of Technology Licensing, 2002. 


  • Robust and Universal Reversible Machines & High-Level Programming Languages in a Recombinase DNA System,” talk given at the DARPA/NSF BioComp PI meeting, Nov. 2001.
  • A Mathematical Theory of Existence,” invited philosophy talk given to UF’s Atheist/Agnostic Student Association, Nov. 2001.
  • OCEAN: The Open Computation Exchange & Auctioning Network,” talk given to the Harris Lab research group, summer 2001.
  • Michael P. Frank and M. Josephine Ammer, “Relativized Separation of Reversible and Irreversible Space-Time Complexity Classes,” preprint of draft article submitted to Information and Computation, May 24, 2001.  PDF at http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~mpf/revsep.pdf (reposted Jan. 26, 2014) .
  • DNA Computing, Reversibility, and Physical Models of Computing“, invited talk given at the University of Delaware’s ECE/CIS department, April 2001.
  • Parallel and Distributed Technology and Infrastructure,” personal research overview presented to the UF CISE department’s Industrial Advisory Board, March 2001.
  • Quantum Computational Networks,” lecture series delivered as part of the Quantum Computing seminar, Mathematics Department, University of Florida, March 2001.
  • Reversible Logic and Its Looming Importance“, Logic Seminar lecture, Mathematics Department, University of Florida, February 2001.


  • OCEAN: The Open Computation Exchange & Arbitration Network: An Open Platform and Commodities Market for Distributed Computation“, business proposal presented to the Cenetec technology incubator firm, November 2000.
  • Adiabatic circuits and reversible logic: Prospects for Improving Computational Efficiency in Present and Future Computing Technologies,” AeMES seminar, AeMES Department, University of Florida, September 2000.
  • Adiabatic logic circuits for ultra-low-power computing,” presentation to Intersil corporation, June 2000.

Major academic positions

  • Electrical & Computer Engineering faculty, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2004-2007 & 2010-2015.
  • Research Associate, FAMU Physics dept., 2008-2012.
  • Computer & Information Science & Engineering faculty, University of Florida, 1999-2004.


  • Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, MIT, 1999.
  • M.S. in Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, MIT, 1994.
  • B.S. in Symbolic Systems, Stanford, 1991.


Xuan Hu, Benjamin Walker, Felipe Garcia-Sanchez, Alexander Edwards, Peng Zhou, Jean Incorvia, Alexandru Paler, Michael Frank, Joseph Friedman, (2022). Logical and Physical Reversibility of Conservative Skyrmion Logic IEEE Magnetics Letters https://doi.org/10.1109/lmag.2022.3174514 Publication ID: 80669

Michael Frank, (2021). The Reversible Computing Future https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1897014 Publication ID: 76343

Michael Frank, (2021). Reversible Computing — The Long-Term Future of General Digital Computing https://doi.org/10.2172/1895005 Publication ID: 76398

Michael Frank, Karpur Shukla, (2021). Quantum foundations of classical reversible computing Entropy https://doi.org/10.3390/e23060701 Publication ID: 78681

Michael Frank, (2021). Perfectly Adiabatic CMOS Logic https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1866902 Publication ID: 78344

Michael Frank, (2021). Reversible Computing with Fast Fully Static Fully Adiabatic CMOS https://doi.org/10.2172/1870764 Publication ID: 78652

Michael Frank, Karpur Shukla, (2021). Quantum Foundations of Classical Reversible Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1870969 Publication ID: 78682

Michael Frank, (2021). Current Status of Reversible Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1869234 Publication ID: 78481

Michael Frank, (2021). Current Status of Reversible Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1869150 Publication ID: 78484

Michael Frank, (2021). Reversible Computing: The Only Future for General Digital Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1861474 Publication ID: 77898

Michael Frank, (2021). Reversible Computing as the Sustainable Path Forward for General Digital Computing https://doi.org/10.2172/1843324 Publication ID: 75186

Michael Frank, Robert Brocato, Brian Tierney, Nancy Missert, Alexander Hsia, (2020). Reversible computing with fast, fully static, fully adiabatic CMOS Proceedings – 2020 International Conference on Rebooting Computing, ICRC 2020 https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1818770 Publication ID: 74725

Michael Frank, (2020). Reversible Computing with Fast Fully Static Fully Adiabatic CMOS https://doi.org/10.2172/1833917 Publication ID: 71828

Michael Frank, (2020). Special Session: Exploring the Ultimate Limits of Adiabatic Circuits https://doi.org/10.2172/1825605 Publication ID: 71204

Rupert Lewis, Tom Mannos, S.B. Kaplan, Jonathon Rose, Michael Frank, Aaron Pennington, (2020). Analysis of PTL routes for LSI of superconducting logic circuits https://doi.org/10.2172/1826986 Publication ID: 71333

Michael Frank, (2020). Reversible Computing as a Path Forward for Improving Dissipation-Delay Efficiency in Superconducting Computing https://doi.org/10.2172/1831040 Publication ID: 71373

Michael Frank, (2020). Novel Reversible Devices and Systems Implications https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1819260 Publication ID: 74765

Michael Frank, (2020). Device & Circuit Technologies for Reversible Computing?An Introduction https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1823230 Publication ID: 71022

Michael Frank, (2020). Architectural Algorithmic and Systems Engineering Issues for Reversible Computing https://doi.org/10.2172/1830955 Publication ID: 71060

Michael Frank, (2020). Fundamental Physics of Reversible Computing–An Introduction https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1821576 Publication ID: 74937

Michael Frank, Robert Brocato, Thomas Conte, Alexander Hsia, Anirudh Jain, Nancy Missert, Karpur Shukla, Brian Tierney, (2020). Exploring the Ultimate Limits of Adiabatic Circuits https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1813925 Publication ID: 74544

Karpur Shukla, Victor Albert, Michael Frank, Jimmy Xu, (2020). Fundamental Thermodynamic Limits of Classical Reversible Computing via GKSL Superoperators with Multiple Asymptotic States https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1818029 Publication ID: 74660

Michael Frank, (2020). Priority Research Challenges in the Physics and Engineering of Classical Reversible Computing Systems https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1811970 Publication ID: 74311

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, Karpur Shukla, (2020). Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Computing using Superconducting Elements https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1775317 Publication ID: 73232

Rupert Lewis, Michael Frank, Nancy Missert, Matthaeus Wolak, Michael Henry, (2020). Reversible Superconducting Logic for Low Power Computation (with Superconductors) https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1767110 Publication ID: 72678

Karpur Shukla, Michael Frank, (2020). Pathfinding Thermodynamically Reversible Quantum Computation https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1763620 Publication ID: 70894

Erik Debenedictis, Michael Frank, (2019). New Design Principles for Cold Electronics 2019 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference, S3S 2019 https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1641190 Publication ID: 69847

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, (2019). Implementing the Asynchronous Reversible Computing Paradigm in Josephson Junction Circuits https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1642993 Publication ID: 65834

Erik Debenedicti, Michael Frank, (2019). New Design Principles for Cold Electronics https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1642759 Publication ID: 65528

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, Matthaeus Wolak, Michael Henry, (2019). Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Fluxon Logic IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity https://doi.org/10.1109/tasc.2019.2904962 Publication ID: 67448

Rupert Lewis, Michael Henry, Travis Young, Michael Frank, Matthaeus Wolak, Nancy Missert, (2019). Measuring Changes in Inductance with Microstrip Resonators IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2019.2899867 Publication ID: 67258

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, Matthaeus Wolak, Michael Henry, Erik Debenedictis, (2019). Modeling Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Computing (ABRC) Primitive Elements Using Superconducting Circuits https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1641449 Publication ID: 70203

Michael Frank, (2019). Semi-Automated Design of Functional Elements for a New Approach to Digital Superconducting Electronics: Methodology and Preliminary Results https://doi.org/10.1109/ISEC46533.2019.8990900 Publication ID: 70036

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, M. Henry, Matthaeus Wolak, Erik Debenedictis, (2019). Semi-Automated Design of Functional Elements for a New Approach to Digital Superconducting Electronics: Methodology and Preliminary Results ISEC 2019 – International Superconductive Electronics Conference https://doi.org/10.1109/ISEC46533.2019.8990900 Publication ID: 70559

Michael Frank, Erik Debenedictis, Nancy Missert, Rupert Lewis, (2019). Innovative Low-Power Cryogenic Electronics for Quantum Control https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1645401 Publication ID: 69093

Michael Frank, (2019). Why reversible computing is the only way forward for general digital computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1639682 Publication ID: 67929

Michael Frank, (2019). Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) for Nonproliferation and Safeguards https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1639384 Publication ID: 67447

Karpur Shukla, Michael Frank, (2019). Information Flows in Reversible Computing Out of Equilibrium with Applications to Models of Topological Quantum Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1639199 Publication ID: 66607

Michael Frank, (2019). Priority Research Direction: Physics & Engineering of Reversible Computing Hardware https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1583030 Publication ID: 64205

Michael Frank, (2018). Reversible Computing as a Path Towards Unbounded Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2018.8638616 Publication ID: 60123

Michael Frank, (2018). Improved superconducting logic families (asynchronous ballistic reversible etc.) – A difficult engineering challenge for SCE https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1592362 Publication ID: 59970

Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, Michael Henry, Michael Frank, Matthaeus Wolak, Travis Young, (2018). Measuring changes in inductance with microstrip resonators https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2019.2899867 Publication ID: 59850

Michael Frank, Rupert Lewis, Nancy Missert, Matthaeus Wolak, Michael Henry, (2018). Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Fluxon Logic https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2019.2904962 Publication ID: 59853

Michael Frank, (2018). Engineering Challenges for Reversible Computing Hardware https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561432 Publication ID: 64108

Michael Frank, (2018). Physical Foundations of Landauer’s Principle https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99498-7_1 Publication ID: 64127

Sriseshan Srikanth, Paul Rabbat, Eric Hein, Bobin Deng, Thomas Conte, Erik Debenedictis, Jeanine Cook, Michael Frank, (2018). Memory System Design for Ultra Low Power, Computationally Error Resilient Processor Microarchitectures Proceedings – International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture https://doi.org/10.1109/HPCA.2018.00065 Publication ID: 54352

Michael Frank, (2018). Physical foundations of Landauer’s principle Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99498-7_1 Publication ID: 62958

Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, (2017). Challenges & Roadmap for Beyond CMOS Computing Simulation https://doi.org/10.2172/1413668 Publication ID: 54661

James Lyke, Jesse Mee, Arthur Edwards, Andrew Pineda, Erik Debenedictis, Michael Frank, (2017). On the energy consequences of information for spacecraft systems 2017 IEEE International Conference on Wireless for Space and Extreme Environments, WiSEE 2017 https://doi.org/10.1109/WiSEE.2017.8124901 Publication ID: 58558

Michael Frank, (2017). Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Computing 2017 IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing, ICRC 2017 – Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2017.8123659 Publication ID: 54255

Michael Frank, (2017). Generalized Reversible Computing and the Unconventional Computing Landscape https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1479260 Publication ID: 53621

Michael Frank, (2017). Throwing computing into reverse IEEE Spectrum https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8012237 Publication ID: 57872

Michael Frank, (2017). Asynchronous Ballistic Quantum Computing https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1470923 Publication ID: 58429

Michael Frank, (2017). Generalizations of the Reversible Computing Paradigm https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1464690 Publication ID: 57873

Michael Frank, (2017). Reversible Computing: The Answer to Scaling https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1464715 Publication ID: 57896

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2017). The Impact of Increasing Memory System Diversity on Applications https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1467973 Publication ID: 58167

Michael Frank, (2017). Asynchronous Ballistic Reversible Computing https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2017.8123659 Publication ID: 58027

Michael Frank, (2017). Adiabatic Circuits: A Tutorial Introduction https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459779 Publication ID: 57154

Michael Frank, (2017). Foundations of Generalized Reversible Computing https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59936-6_2 Publication ID: 57155

Michael Frank, (2017). Feasible demonstration of ultra-low-power adiabatic CMOS for cubesat applications using LC ladder resonators https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1458095 Publication ID: 56599

Michael Frank, (2017). Fundamental Energy Limits and Reversible Computing Revisited https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1458032 Publication ID: 56530

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2017). The Impact of Increasing Memory System Diversity on Applications https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456666 Publication ID: 55999

Michael Frank, (2017). Why Reversible Computing is the Only Long-Term Path for Sustained Affordable Performance Growth https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1505702 Publication ID: 54907

Michael Frank, (2017). Generalized Reversible Computing Truly Adiabatic Circuits and Asynchronous Ballistic Logic https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1648680 Publication ID: 54908

Michael Frank, (2017). Foundations of generalized reversible computing Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59936-6_2 Publication ID: 55667

Erik Debenedictis, Jesse Mee, Michael Frank, (2017). The opportunities and controversies of reversible computing Computer https://doi.org/10.1109/mc.2017.177 Publication ID: 58025

Arun Rodrigues, Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2017). NNSA Applications and Multi-level Memory https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429443 Publication ID: 53740

Sapan Agarwal, Jeanine Cook, Erik Debenedictis, Michael Frank, Gert Cauwenberghs, Sriseshan Srikanth, Bobin Deng, Eric Hein, Paul Rabbat, Thomas Conte, (2016). Energy efficiency limits of logic and memory 2016 IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing, ICRC 2016 – Conference Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2016.7738676 Publication ID: 47237

Michael Frank, Erik Debenedictis, (2016). A novel operational paradigm for thermodynamically reversible logic: Adibatic transformation of chaotic nonlinear dynamical circuits 2016 IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing, ICRC 2016 – Conference Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2016.7738679 Publication ID: 51438

Michael Frank, Erik Debenedictis, (2016). Chaotic Logic: Presenting the Paper “A Novel Operational Paradigm for Thermodynamically Reversible Logic” https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1401927 Publication ID: 47199

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2016). ASC L2 Milestone – Evaluation of Opportunities for Multi-Level Memory https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393767 Publication ID: 52230

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2016). ASC L2 Milestone – Evaluation of Opportunities for Multi-Level Memory https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529766 Publication ID: 52094

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, Arun Rodrigues, (2016). Evaluating the Opportunities for Multi-Level Memory – An ASC 2016 L2 Milestone https://doi.org/10.2172/1562213 Publication ID: 52136

Gwendolyn Voskuilen, Arun Rodrigues, Michael Frank, Simon Hammond, (2016). Evaluating the Opportunities for Multi-Level Memory ? An ASC 2016 L2 Milestone https://doi.org/10.2172/1562218 Publication ID: 52146

Michael Frank, (2016). Physical Limits of Computing https://doi.org/10.1109/5992.998637 Publication ID: 51376

Sapan Agarwal, Jeanine Cook, Erik Debenedictis, Michael Frank, Gert Cauwenburghs, Sriseshan Srikanth, Bobin Deng, Eric Hein, Paul Rabbat, Thomas Conte, (2016). Energy Efficiency Limits of Logic and Memory https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRC.2016.7738676 Publication ID: 51395

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