A probabilistic, risk-based performance-assessment method has been developed to assist designers, regulators, and stakeholders in the selection, design, and monitoring of long-term covers to isolate subsurface contaminants. Current landfill-cover design guidelines, such as those stated in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, are not risk-based and do not consider long-term site-specific influences such as climate, vegetation, and soils. These design guidelines may not address important long-term features, events, and processes at the site that may contribute to the long-term risk of groundwater contamination and human exposure. In addition, traditional design guidelines for covers often rely on deterministic models of flow and transport processes that neglect uncertainty inherent in actual contaminant transport.
A probabilistic, risk-based performance-assessment methodology considers regulatory requirements, site-specific parameters, engineering-design parameters, and long-term verification and monitoring requirements. Because many of the contaminants are long-lived, this methodology also considers changes in the environmental setting (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and cover components (e.g., liner integrity) for long time periods (>100 years). Uncertainty and variability in important site-specific parameters are also incorporated through stochastic simulations in this method.
As defined by DOE M 435.1-1, a performance assessment is An analysis of a radioactive waste disposal facility conducted to demonstrate there is a reasonable expectation that performance objectives established for the long-term protection of the public and the environment will not be exceeded following closure of the facility. In addition, DOE M 435.1-1 also states that the method used for the performance assessment must include uncertainty analyses. A method that addresses these requirements has been used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 1996), the Yucca Mountain Project (DOE, 1998), and the intermediate-depth Greater Confinement Disposal Boreholes (Cochran et al., 2001) to assess the long-term performance of nuclear waste repositories. Uncertainty analyses and probabilistic approaches have also been used for decommissioning of contaminated sites (Meyer and Gee, 1999; Meyer and Taira, 2001). A similar systematic approach is proposed here to conduct performance assessments for long-term covers. The approach is outlined as follows:
- Develop and screen scenarios based on regulatory requirements (performance objectives) and relevant features, events, and processes
- Develop models of relevant features, events, and processes
- Develop values and/or uncertainty distributions for uncertain input parameters
- Perform calculations and sensitivity/ uncertainty analyses
- Document results and provide feedback to previous steps and associated areas to improve calculations, as needed
- Performance Assessment of Monticello Mill Tailings Repository
- Performance Assessment of Lakeview Mill Site
- Performance Assessment of the Mixed Waste Landfill (2nd Edition) (4.2 MB)
Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration
The ALCD was a research program conducted to investigate the performance of various landfill cover systems including alternatives that may be well suited for arid and semi-arid climates. This research involved the design, construction and monitoring of six large-scale cover systems at a test facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Water balance and vegetation aspects were monitored beginning in 1995 and continued through 2002 for each cover system. Soil hydraulic properties were measured in the laboratory and field. Numerical simulations of the water balance for each cover system were conducted to assess current design approaches and gain insight into the cover performance.
- Ho, C.K., T. Goering, J. Peace, and M. Miller, Public Presentation of "Probabilistic Performance-Assessment Modeling of the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories," SAND2005-7432P, Albuquerque, NM, January 2006.
- Ho, C.K., T. Goering, J. Peace, and M. Miller, Probabilistic Performance-Assessment Modeling of the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories (2nd Edition), SAND2007-0170, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, January 2007.
- Ho, Clifford K., Arnold, Bill W., Cochran, John R., Taria, Randal Y., and Pelton, Mitchell A., "A probabilistic model and software tool for evaluating the long-term performance of landfill covers", Environmental Modelling and Software Journal, 19, 2004, pp. 63-88.
- Ho, Clifford K., Arnold, Bill W., Cochran, John R., and Taria, Randal Y., "Development of a Risk-Based Probabilistic Performance-Assessment Method for Long-Term Cover Systems–2nd Edition", Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2002-3131, October 2002.
- Ho, Clifford K., Arnold, Bill W., Cochran, John R., Taria, Randal Y., and Webb, Stephen W., "Development of a Risk-Based Probabilistic Performance-Assessment Method for Long-Term Cover Systems–Application to Monticello Mill Tailings Repository", Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2001-3032, October 2001.
- Dwyer, Stephen F., Reavis, Bruce, and Newman, Gretchen "Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration FY2000 Annual Data Report", Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2000-2427, October 2000.
- Waugh, W. J., "Monitoring the Long-Term Performance of Uranium Mill Tailings Covers", Ray F. Weston, Inc, Grand Junction Office, Grand Junction, CO.
- Hauser, Victor, Weand, Borroon, Gill, Marc, "Alternative Landfill Covers", The Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, Technology Transfer Division, July 2001.
- PowerPoint Presentation, Ho, Clifford K., Arnold, Bill W., Cochran, John R., and Taria, Randal Y., Risk-Based Performance-Assessment for Long-Term Cover Systems: Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses, Spectrum Conference, August 2002.
Long-term cover systems are needed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites to assist in isolating contaminants from the biosphere at near-surface landfills, waste-disposal sites, and high-level radioactive waste tanks. The long-term covers are considered to be a vital remedial option for DOE 2006 Accelerated Cleanup Plan (DOE/EM-0362), which intends to clean up more than 90 percent of the contaminated sites in DOE Environmental Management Program. In addition, DOE Order 435.1 states that performance assessments are to be conducted for low-level radioactive waste disposed after September 26, 1988, and that performance objectives should be evaluated for a 1,000-year period to determine potential risk impacts to the public and environment.
The use of performance assessments for long-term cover systems also provides the following benefits:
- Quantification of uncertainty in the simulated performance metrics
- Identification of parameters and processes most important to performance for prioritization of site characterization and long-term monitoring activities
- Comparison of alternative designs to optimize cost and performance while ensuring that regulatory requirements are met
- USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program: Alternative Landfill Cover Assessment
- EPA Hazardous Waste Cleanup Information