The selective amorphization of SiGe in Si/SiGe nanostructures via a 1 MeV Si + implant was investigated, resulting in single-crystal Si nanowires (NWs) and quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated in amorphous SiGe fins and pillars, respectively. The Si NWs and QDs are formed during high-temperature dry oxidation of single-crystal Si/SiGe heterostructure fins and pillars, during which Ge diffuses along the nanostructure sidewalls and encapsulates the Si layers. The fins and pillars were then subjected to a 3 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 1 MeV Si + implant, resulting in the amorphization of SiGe, while leaving the encapsulated Si crystalline for larger, 65-nm wide NWs and QDs. Interestingly, the 26-nm diameter Si QDs amorphize, while the 28-nm wide NWs remain crystalline during the same high energy ion implant. This result suggests that the Si/SiGe pillars have a lower threshold for Si-induced amorphization compared to their Si/SiGe fin counterparts. However, Monte Carlo simulations of ion implantation into the Si/SiGe nanostructures reveal similar predicted levels of displacements per cm 3 . Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the total stress magnitude in Si QDs encapsulated in crystalline SiGe is higher than the total stress magnitude in Si NWs, which may lead to greater crystalline instability in the QDs during ion implant. The potential lower amorphization threshold of QDs compared to NWs is of special importance to applications that require robust QD devices in a variety of radiation environments.
We demonstrate the ability to fabricate vertically stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) within SiGe nanowires with QD diameters down to 2 nm. These QDs are formed during high-temperature dry oxidation of Si/SiGe heterostructure pillars, during which Ge diffuses along the pillars' sidewalls and encapsulates the Si layers. Continued oxidation results in QDs with sizes dependent on oxidation time. The formation of a Ge-rich shell that encapsulates the Si QDs is observed, a configuration which is confirmed to be thermodynamically favorable with molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The type-II band alignment of the Si dot/SiGe pillar suggests that charge trapping on the Si QDs is possible, and electron energy loss spectra show that a conduction band offset of at least 200 meV is maintained for even the smallest Si QDs. Our approach is compatible with current Si-based manufacturing processes, offering a new avenue for realizing Si QD devices.
This project sought to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms underlying a newly observed enhanced germanium (Ge) diffusion process in silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductor nanostructures during thermal oxidation. Using a combination of oxidationdiffusion experiments, high resolution imaging, and theoretical modeling, a model for the enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was proposed. Additionally, a nanofabrication approach utilizing this enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was shown to be applicable to arbitrary 3D shapes, leading to the fabrication of stacked silicon quantum dots embedded in SiGe nanopillars. A new wet etch-based method for preparing 3D nanostructures for highresolution imaging free of obscuring material or damage was also developed. These results enable a new method for the controlled and scalable fabrication of on-chip silicon nanostructures with sub-10 nm dimensions needed for next generation microelectronics, including low energy electronics, quantum computing, sensors, and integrated photonics.
While it is likely practically a bad idea to shrink a transistor to the size of an atom, there is no arguing that it would be fantastic to have atomic-scale control over every aspect of a transistor – a kind of crystal ball to understand and evaluate new ideas. This project showed that it was possible to take a niche technique used to place dopants in silicon with atomic precision and apply it broadly to study opportunities and limitations in microelectronics. In addition, it laid the foundation to attaining atomic-scale control in semiconductor manufacturing more broadly.
The adsorption of AlCl3 on Si(100) and the effect of annealing the AlCl3-dosed substrate were studied to reveal key surface processes for the development of atomic-precision, acceptor-doping techniques. This investigation was performed via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At room temperature, AlCl3 readily adsorbed to the Si substrate dimers and dissociated to form a variety of species. Annealing the AlCl3-dosed substrate at temperatures below 450 °C produced unique chlorinated aluminum chains (CACs) elongated along the Si(100) dimer row direction. An atomic model for the chains is proposed with supporting DFT calculations. Al was incorporated into the Si substrate upon annealing at 450 °C and above, and Cl desorption was observed for temperatures beyond 450 °C. Al-incorporated samples were encapsulated in Si and characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling to quantify the Al atom concentration, which was found to be in excess of 1020 cm-3 across a ∼2.7 nm-thick δ-doped region. The Al concentration achieved here and the processing parameters utilized promote AlCl3 as a viable gaseous precursor for novel acceptor-doped Si materials and devices for quantum computing.
The attachment of dopant precursor molecules to depassivated areas of hydrogen-terminated silicon templated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been used to create electronic devices with subnanometer precision, typically for quantum physics experiments. This process, which we call atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM), dopes silicon beyond the solid-solubility limit and produces electrical and optical characteristics that may also be useful for microelectronic and plasmonic applications. However, scanned probe lithography lacks the throughput required to develop more sophisticated applications. Here, we demonstrate and characterize an APAM device workflow where scanned probe lithography of the atomic layer resist has been replaced by photolithography. An ultraviolet laser is shown to locally and controllably heat silicon above the temperature required for hydrogen depassivation on a nanosecond timescale, a process resistant to under- and overexposure. STM images indicate a narrow range of energy density where the surface is both depassivated and undamaged. Modeling that accounts for photothermal heating and the subsequent hydrogen desorption kinetics suggests that the silicon surface temperatures reached in our patterning process exceed those required for hydrogen removal in temperature-programmed desorption experiments. A phosphorus-doped van der Pauw structure made by sequentially photodepassivating a predefined area and then exposing it to phosphine is found to have a similar mobility and higher carrier density compared with devices patterned by STM. Lastly, it is also demonstrated that photodepassivation and precursor exposure steps may be performed concomitantly, a potential route to enabling APAM outside of ultrahigh vacuum.
The attachment of dopant precursor molecules to depassivated areas of hydrogen-terminated silicon templated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been used to create electronic devices with sub-nanometer precision, typically for quantum physics demonstrations, and to dope silicon past the solid-solubility limit, with potential applications in microelectronics and plasmonics. However, this process, which we call atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM), currently lacks the throughput required to develop sophisticated applications because there is no proven scalable hydrogen lithography pathway. Here, we demonstrate and characterize an APAM device workflow where STM lithography has been replaced with photolithography. An ultraviolet laser is shown to locally heat silicon controllably above the temperature required for hydrogen depassivation. STM images indicate a narrow range of laser energy density where hydrogen has been depassivated, and the surface remains well-ordered. A model for photothermal heating of silicon predicts a local temperature which is consistent with atomic-scale STM images of the photo-patterned regions. Finally, a simple device made by exposing photo-depassivated silicon to phosphine is found to have a carrier density and mobility similar to that produced by similar devices patterned by STM.
This SAND report is the final report on Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD Project 27328, 'A Revolution in Lighting -- Building the Science and Technology Base for Ultra-Efficient Solid-state Lighting.' This project, which for brevity we refer to as the SSL GCLDRD, is considered one of Sandia's most successful GCLDRDs. As a result, this report reviews not only technical highlights, but also the genesis of the idea for Solid-state Lighting (SSL), the initiation of the SSL GCLDRD, and the goals, scope, success metrics, and evolution of the SSL GCLDRD over the course of its life. One way in which the SSL GCLDRD was different from other GCLDRDs was that it coincided with a larger effort by the SSL community - primarily industrial companies investing in SSL, but also universities, trade organizations, and other Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories - to support a national initiative in SSL R&D. Sandia was a major player in publicizing the tremendous energy savings potential of SSL, and in helping to develop, unify and support community consensus for such an initiative. Hence, our activities in this area, discussed in Chapter 6, were substantial: white papers; SSL technology workshops and roadmaps; support for the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), DOE and Senator Bingaman's office; extensive public relations and media activities; and a worldwide SSL community website. Many science and technology advances and breakthroughs were also enabled under this GCLDRD, resulting in: 55 publications; 124 presentations; 10 book chapters and reports; 5 U.S. patent applications including 1 already issued; and 14 patent disclosures not yet applied for. Twenty-six invited talks were given, at prestigious venues such as the American Physical Society Meeting, the Materials Research Society Meeting, the AVS International Symposium, and the Electrochemical Society Meeting. This report contains a summary of these science and technology advances and breakthroughs, with Chapters 1-5 devoted to the five technical task areas: 1 Fundamental Materials Physics; 2 111-Nitride Growth Chemistry and Substrate Physics; 3 111-Nitride MOCVD Reactor Design and In-Situ Monitoring; 4 Advanced Light-Emitting Devices; and 5 Phosphors and Encapsulants. Chapter 7 (Appendix A) contains a listing of publications, presentations, and patents. Finally, the SSL GCLDRD resulted in numerous actual and pending follow-on programs for Sandia, including multiple grants from DOE and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with SSL companies. Many of these follow-on programs arose out of contacts developed through our External Advisory Committee (EAC). In h s and other ways, the EAC played a very important role. Chapter 8 (Appendix B) contains the full (unedited) text of the EAC reviews that were held periodically during the course of the project.