Tabulated chemistry models are widely used to simulate large-scale turbulent fires in applications including energy generation and fire safety. Tabulation via piecewise Cartesian interpolation suffers from the curse-of-dimensionality, leading to a prohibitive exponential growth in parameters and memory usage as more dimensions are considered. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have attracted attention for constructing surrogates for chemistry models due to their ability to perform high-dimensional approximation. However, due to well-known pathologies regarding the realization of suboptimal local minima during training, in practice they do not converge and provide unreliable accuracy. Partition of unity networks (POUnets) are a recently introduced family of ANNs which preserve notions of convergence while performing high-dimensional approximation, discovering a mesh-free partition of space which may be used to perform optimal polynomial approximation. In this work, we assess their performance with respect to accuracy and model complexity in reconstructing unstructured flamelet data representative of nonadiabatic pool fire models. Our results show that POUnets can provide the desirable accuracy of classical spline-based interpolants with the low memory footprint of traditional ANNs while converging faster to significantly lower errors than ANNs. For example, we observe POUnets obtaining target accuracies in two dimensions with 40 to 50 times less memory and roughly double the compression in three dimensions. We also address the practical matter of efficiently training accurate POUnets by studying convergence over key hyperparameters, the impact of partition/basis formulation, and the sensitivity to initialization.
Physics-informed machine learning (PIML) has emerged as a promising new approach for simulating complex physical and biological systems that are governed by complex multiscale processes for which some data are also available. In some instances, the objective is to discover part of the hidden physics from the available data, and PIML has been shown to be particularly effective for such problems for which conventional methods may fail. Unlike commercial machine learning where training of deep neural networks requires big data, in PIML big data are not available. Instead, we can train such networks from additional information obtained by employing the physical laws and evaluating them at random points in the space-time domain. Such PIML integrates multimodality and multifidelity data with mathematical models, and implements them using neural networks or graph networks. Here, we review some of the prevailing trends in embedding physics into machine learning, using physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) based primarily on feed-forward neural networks and automatic differentiation. For more complex systems or systems of systems and unstructured data, graph neural networks (GNNs) present some distinct advantages, and here we review how physics-informed learning can be accomplished with GNNs based on graph exterior calculus to construct differential operators; we refer to these architectures as physics-informed graph networks (PIGNs). We present representative examples for both forward and inverse problems and discuss what advances are needed to scale up PINNs, PIGNs and more broadly GNNs for large-scale engineering problems.
Physics-informed neural network architectures have emerged as a powerful tool for developing flexible PDE solvers that easily assimilate data. When applied to problems in shock physics however, these approaches face challenges related to the collocation-based PDE discretization underpinning them. By instead adopting a least squares space-time control volume scheme, we obtain a scheme which more naturally handles: regularity requirements, imposition of boundary conditions, entropy compatibility, and conservation, substantially reducing requisite hyperparameters in the process. Additionally, connections to classical finite volume methods allows application of inductive biases toward entropy solutions and total variation diminishing properties. For inverse problems in shock hydrodynamics, we propose inductive biases for discovering thermodynamically consistent equations of state that guarantee hyperbolicity. This framework therefore provides a means of discovering continuum shock models from molecular simulations of rarefied gases and metals. The output of the learning process provides a data-driven equation of state which may be incorporated into traditional shock hydrodynamics codes.
This report includes a compilation of several slide presentations: 1) Interatomic Potentials for Materials Science and Beyond–Advances in Machine Learned Spectral Neighborhood Analysis Potentials (Wood); 2) Agile Materials Science and Advanced Manufacturing through AI/ML (de Oca Zapiain); 3) Machine Learning for DFT Calculations (Rajamanickam); 4) Structure-preserving ML discovery of a quantum-to-continuum codesign stack (Trask); and 5) IBM Overview of Accelerated Discovery Technology (Pitera)
Nonlocal models naturally handle a range of physics of interest to SNL, but discretization of their underlying integral operators poses mathematical challenges to realize the accuracy and robustness commonplace in discretization of local counterparts. This project focuses on the concept of asymptotic compatibility, namely preservation of the limit of the discrete nonlocal model to a corresponding well-understood local solution. We address challenges that have traditionally troubled nonlocal mechanics models primarily related to consistency guarantees and boundary conditions. For simple problems such as diffusion and linear elasticity we have developed complete error analysis theory providing consistency guarantees. We then take these foundational tools to develop new state-of-the-art capabilities for: lithiation-induced failure in batteries, ductile failure of problems driven by contact, blast-on-structure induced failure, brittle/ductile failure of thin structures. We also summarize ongoing efforts using these frameworks in data-driven modeling contexts. This report provides a high-level summary of all publications which followed from these efforts.
Meshfree discretizations of state-based peridynamic models are attractive due to their ability to naturally describe fracture of general materials. However, two factors conspire to prevent meshfree discretizations of state-based peridynamics from converging to corresponding local solutions as resolution is increased: quadrature error prevents an accurate prediction of bulk mechanics, and the lack of an explicit boundary representation presents challenges when applying traction loads. In this paper, we develop a reformulation of the linear peridynamic solid (LPS) model to address these shortcomings, using improved meshfree quadrature, a reformulation of the nonlocal dilatation, and a consistent handling of the nonlocal traction condition to construct a model with rigorous accuracy guarantees. In particular, these improvements are designed to enforce discrete consistency in the presence of evolving fractures, whose a priori unknown location render consistent treatment difficult. In the absence of fracture, when a corresponding classical continuum mechanics model exists, our improvements provide asymptotically compatible convergence to corresponding local solutions, eliminating surface effects and issues with traction loading which have historically plagued peridynamic discretizations. When fracture occurs, our formulation automatically provides a sharp representation of the fracture surface by breaking bonds, avoiding the loss of mass. We provide rigorous error analysis and demonstrate convergence for a number of benchmarks, including manufactured solutions, free-surface, nonhomogeneous traction loading, and composite material problems. Finally, we validate simulations of brittle fracture against a recent experiment of dynamic crack branching in soda-lime glass, providing evidence that the scheme yields accurate predictions for practical engineering problems.