Publications / SAND Report

Dynamic Multi-Sensor Multi-Mission Optimal Planning Tool

Valicka, Christopher G.; Rowe, Stephen R.; Zou, Simon Z.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Irelan, William R.; Pollard, Eric L.; Garcia, Deanna G.; Hackebeil, Gabriel A.; Staid, Andrea S.; Rintoul, Mark D.; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Hart, William E.; Rathinam, Sivakumar R.; Ntaimo, Lewis N.

Remote sensing systems have firmly established a role in providing immense value to commercial industry, scientific exploration, and national security. Continued maturation of sensing technology has reduced the cost of deploying highly-capable sensors while at the same time increased reliance on the information these sensors can provide. The demand for time on these sensors is unlikely to diminish. Coordination of next-generation sensor systems, larger constellations of satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles, ground telescopes, etc. is prohibitively complex for existing heuristics- based scheduling techniques. The project was a two-year collaboration spanning multiple Sandia centers and included a partnership with Texas A&M University. We have developed algorithms and software for collection scheduling, remote sensor field-of-view pointing models, and bandwidth- constrained prioritization of sensor data. Our approach followed best practices from the operations research and computational geometry communities. These models provide several advantages over state of the art techniques. In particular, our approach is more flexible compared to heuristics that tightly couple models and solution techniques. First, our mixed-integer linear models afford a rig- orous analysis so that sensor planners can quantitatively describe a schedule relative to the best possible. Optimal or near-optimal schedules can be produced with commercial solvers in opera- tional run-times. These models can be modified and extended to incorporate different scheduling and resource constraints and objective function definitions. Further, we have extended these mod- els to proactively schedule sensors under weather and ad hoc collection uncertainty. This approach stands in contrast to existing deterministic schedulers which assume a single future weather or ad hoc collection scenario. The field-of-view pointing algorithm produces a mosaic with the fewest number of images required to fully cover a region of interest. The bandwidth-constrained al- gorithms find the highest priority information that can be transmitted. All of these are based on mixed-integer linear programs so that, in the future, collection scheduling, field-of-view, and band- width prioritization can be combined into a single problem. Experiments conducted using the de- veloped models, commercial solvers, and benchmark datasets have demonstrated that proactively scheduling against uncertainty regularly and significantly outperforms deterministic schedulers. Acknowledgement We would like to acknowledge John T. Feddema, Brian N. Post, John H. Ganter, and Swaroop Darbha for providing critical project stewardship and fruitful remote sensing utilization discus- sions. A special thanks to Mohamed S. Ebeida for his contributions to the development of the Maximal Poisson Sampling technique. We would also like to thank Kaarthik Sundar and Jianglei Qin for their significant scheduling algorithm and model development contributions to the project. The authors would like to acknowledge the Sandia LDRD program for their support of this work. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Cor- poration, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.