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Quantum-Accurate Multiscale Modeling of Shock Hugoniots, Ramp Compression Paths, Structural and Magnetic Phase Transitions, and Transport Properties in Highly Compressed Metals

Wood, Mitchell A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav V.; Rohskopf, Andrew D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Cangi, Attila C.; Tranchida, Julien T.

Fully characterizing high energy density (HED) phenomena using pulsed power facilities (Z machine) and coherent light sources is possible only with complementary numerical modeling for design, diagnostic development, and data interpretation. The exercise of creating numerical tests, that match experimental conditions, builds critical insight that is crucial for the development of a strong fundamental understanding of the physics behind HED phenomena and for the design of next generation pulsed power facilities. The persistence of electron correlation in HED ma- terials arising from Coulomb interactions and the Pauli exclusion principle is one of the greatest challenges for accurate numerical modeling and has hitherto impeded our ability to model HED phenomena across multiple length and time scales at sufficient accuracy. An exemplar is a fer- romagnetic material like iron, while familiar and widely used, we lack a simulation capability to characterize the interplay of structure and magnetic effects that govern material strength, ki- netics of phase transitions and other transport properties. Herein we construct and demonstrate the Molecular-Spin Dynamics (MSD) simulation capability for iron from ambient to earth core conditions, all software advances are open source and presently available for broad usage. These methods are multi-scale in nature, direct comparisons between high fidelity density functional the- ory (DFT) and linear-scaling MSD simulations is done throughout this work, with advancements made to MSD allowing for electronic structure changes being reflected in classical dynamics. Main takeaways for the project include insight into the role of magnetic spins on mechanical properties and thermal conductivity, development of accurate interatomic potentials paired with spin Hamil- tonians, and characterization of the high pressure melt boundary that is of critical importance to planetary modeling efforts.

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Permutation-adapted complete and independent basis for atomic cluster expansion descriptors

Goff, James M.; Sievers, Charles S.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Thompson, Aidan P.

In many recent applications, particularly in the field of atom-centered descriptors for interatomic potentials, tensor products of spherical harmonics have been used to characterize complex atomic environments. When coupled with a radial basis, the atomic cluster expansion (ACE) basis is obtained. However, symmetrization with respect to both rotation and permutation results in an overcomplete set of ACE descriptors with linear dependencies occurring within blocks of functions corresponding to particular generalized Wigner symbols. All practical applications of ACE employ semi-numerical constructions to generate a complete, fully independent basis. While computationally tractable, the resultant basis cannot be expressed analytically, is susceptible to numerical instability, and thus has limited reproducibility. Here we present a procedure for generating explicit analytic expressions for a complete and independent set of ACE descriptors. The procedure uses a coupling scheme that is maximally symmetric w.r.t. permutation of the atoms, exposing the permutational symmetries of the generalized Wigner symbols, and yields a permutation-adapted rotationally and permutationally invariant basis (PA-RPI ACE). Theoretical support for the approach is presented, as well as numerical evidence of completeness and independence. A summary of explicit enumeration of PA-RPI functions up to rank 6 and polynomial degree 32 is provided. The PA-RPI blocks corresponding to particular generalized Wigner symbols may be either larger or smaller than the corresponding blocks in the simpler rotationally invariant basis. Finally, we demonstrate that basis functions of high polynomial degree persist under strong regularization, indicating the importance of not restricting the maximum degree of basis functions in ACE models a priori.

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Elucidating size effects on the yield strength of single-crystal Cu via the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

Journal of Applied Physics

Stewart, James A.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Olles, Joseph O.

Capturing the dynamic response of a material under high strain-rate deformation often demands challenging and time consuming experimental effort. While shock hydrodynamic simulation methods can aid in this area, a priori characterizations of the material strength under shock loading and spall failure are needed in order to parameterize constitutive models needed for these computational tools. Moreover, parameterizations of strain-rate-dependent strength models are needed to capture the full suite of Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) behavior of shock compressed metals, creating an unrealistic demand for these training data solely on experiments. Herein, we sweep a large range of geometric, crystallographic, and shock conditions within molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and demonstrate the breadth of RMI in Cu that can be captured from the atomic scale. In this work, yield strength measurements from jetted and arrested material from a sinusoidal surface perturbation were quantified as YRMI = 0.787 ± 0.374 GPa, higher than strain-rate-independent models used in experimentally matched hydrodynamic simulations. Defect-free, single-crystal Cu samples used in MD will overestimate YRMI, but the drastic scale difference between experiment and MD is highlighted by high confidence neighborhood clustering predictions of RMI characterizations, yielding incorrect classifications.

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Thermodynamically consistent physics-informed neural networks for hyperbolic systems

Journal of Computational Physics

Patel, Ravi G.; Manickam, Indu; Trask, Nathaniel A.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Lee, Myoungkyu N.; Tomas, Ignacio T.; Cyr, Eric C.

Physics-informed neural network architectures have emerged as a powerful tool for developing flexible PDE solvers that easily assimilate data. When applied to problems in shock physics however, these approaches face challenges related to the collocation-based PDE discretization underpinning them. By instead adopting a least squares space-time control volume scheme, we obtain a scheme which more naturally handles: regularity requirements, imposition of boundary conditions, entropy compatibility, and conservation, substantially reducing requisite hyperparameters in the process. Additionally, connections to classical finite volume methods allows application of inductive biases toward entropy solutions and total variation diminishing properties. For inverse problems in shock hydrodynamics, we propose inductive biases for discovering thermodynamically consistent equations of state that guarantee hyperbolicity. This framework therefore provides a means of discovering continuum shock models from molecular simulations of rarefied gases and metals. The output of the learning process provides a data-driven equation of state which may be incorporated into traditional shock hydrodynamics codes.

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Data-driven magneto-elastic predictions with scalable classical spin-lattice dynamics

npj Computational Materials

Nikolov, Svetoslav V.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Cangi, Attila; Maillet, Jean B.; Marinica, Mihai C.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Tranchida, Julien G.

A data-driven framework is presented for building magneto-elastic machine-learning interatomic potentials (ML-IAPs) for large-scale spin-lattice dynamics simulations. The magneto-elastic ML-IAPs are constructed by coupling a collective atomic spin model with an ML-IAP. Together they represent a potential energy surface from which the mechanical forces on the atoms and the precession dynamics of the atomic spins are computed. Both the atomic spin model and the ML-IAP are parametrized on data from first-principles calculations. We demonstrate the efficacy of our data-driven framework across magneto-structural phase transitions by generating a magneto-elastic ML-IAP for α-iron. The combined potential energy surface yields excellent agreement with first-principles magneto-elastic calculations and quantitative predictions of diverse materials properties including bulk modulus, magnetization, and specific heat across the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic phase transition.

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Sandia / IBM Discussion on Machine Learning for Materials Applications [Slides]

Littlewood, David J.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Montes de Oca Zapiain, David M.; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran R.; Trask, Nathaniel A.

This report includes a compilation of several slide presentations: 1) Interatomic Potentials for Materials Science and Beyond–Advances in Machine Learned Spectral Neighborhood Analysis Potentials (Wood); 2) Agile Materials Science and Advanced Manufacturing through AI/ML (de Oca Zapiain); 3) Machine Learning for DFT Calculations (Rajamanickam); 4) Structure-preserving ML discovery of a quantum-to-continuum codesign stack (Trask); and 5) IBM Overview of Accelerated Discovery Technology (Pitera)

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Mode-Selective Vibrational Energy Transfer Dynamics in 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) Thin Films

Journal of Physical Chemistry A

Cole-Filipiak, Neil C.; Knepper, Robert; Wood, Mitchell A.; Ramasesha, Krupa R.

The coupling of inter- and intramolecular vibrations plays a critical role in initiating chemistry during the shock-to-detonation transition in energetic materials. Herein, we report on the subpicosecond to subnanosecond vibrational energy transfer (VET) dynamics of the solid energetic material 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by using broadband, ultrafast infrared transient absorption spectroscopy. Experiments reveal VET occurring on three distinct time scales: subpicosecond, 5 ps, and 200 ps. The ultrafast appearance of signal at all probed modes in the mid-infrared suggests strong anharmonic coupling of all vibrations in the solid, whereas the long-lived evolution demonstrates that VET is incomplete, and thus thermal equilibrium is not attained, even on the 100 ps time scale. Density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics simulations provide valuable insights into the experimental observations, revealing compression-insensitive time scales for the initial VET dynamics of high-frequency vibrations and drastically extended relaxation times for low-frequency phonon modes under lattice compression. Mode selectivity of the longest dynamics suggests coupling of the N-N and axial NO2stretching modes with the long-lived, excited phonon bath.

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Efficacy of the radial pair potential approximation for molecular dynamics simulations of dense plasmas

Physics of Plasmas

Stanek, Lucas J.; Clay III, Raymond C.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Beckwith, Kristian B.; Murillo, Michael S.

Macroscopic simulations of dense plasmas rely on detailed microscopic information that can be computationally expensive and is difficult to verify experimentally. In this work, we delineate the accuracy boundary between microscale simulation methods by comparing Kohn-Sham density functional theory molecular dynamics (KS-MD) and radial pair potential molecular dynamics (RPP-MD) for a range of elements, temperature, and density. By extracting the optimal RPP from KS-MD data using force matching, we constrain its functional form and dismiss classes of potentials that assume a constant power law for small interparticle distances. Our results show excellent agreement between RPP-MD and KS-MD for multiple metrics of accuracy at temperatures of only a few electron volts. The use of RPPs offers orders of magnitude decrease in computational cost and indicates that three-body potentials are not required beyond temperatures of a few eV. Due to its efficiency, the validated RPP-MD provides an avenue for reducing errors due to finite-size effects that can be on the order of ∼ 20 %.

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A physics-informed operator regression framework for extracting data-driven continuum models

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering

Patel, Ravi G.; Trask, Nathaniel A.; Wood, Mitchell A.; Cyr, Eric C.

The application of deep learning toward discovery of data-driven models requires careful application of inductive biases to obtain a description of physics which is both accurate and robust. We present here a framework for discovering continuum models from high fidelity molecular simulation data. Our approach applies a neural network parameterization of governing physics in modal space, allowing a characterization of differential operators while providing structure which may be used to impose biases related to symmetry, isotropy, and conservation form. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for a variety of physics, including local and nonlocal diffusion processes and single and multiphase flows. For the flow physics we demonstrate this approach leads to a learned operator that generalizes to system characteristics not included in the training sets, such as variable particle sizes, densities, and concentration.

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Results 1–25 of 63
Results 1–25 of 63