Metamaterials are artificial structures that can manipulate and control sound waves in ways not possible with conventional materials. While much effort has been undertaken to widen the bandgaps produced by these materials through design of heterogeneities within unit cells, comparatively little work has considered the effect of engineering heterogeneities at the structural scale by combining different types of unit cells. In this paper, we use the relaxed micromorphic model to study wave propagation in heterogeneous metastructures composed of different unit cells. We first establish the efficacy of the relaxed micromorphic model for capturing the salient characteristics of dispersive wave propagation through comparisons with direct numerical simulations for two classes of metamaterial unit cells: namely phononic crystals and locally resonant metamaterials. We then use this model to demonstrate how spatially arranging multiple unit cells into metastructures can lead to tailored and unique properties such as spatially-dependent broadband wave attenuation, rainbow trapping, and pulse shaping. In the case of the broadband wave attenuation application, we show that by building layered metastructures from different metamaterial unit cells, we can slow down or stop wave packets in an enlarged frequency range, while letting other frequencies through. In the case of the rainbow-trapping application, we show that spatial arrangements of different unit cells can be designed to progressively slow down and eventually stop waves with different frequencies at different spatial locations. Finally, in the case of the pulse-shaping application, our results show that heterogeneous metastructures can be designed to tailor the spatial profile of a propagating wave packet. Collectively, these results show the versatility of the relaxed micromorphic model for effectively and accurately simulating wave propagation in heterogeneous metastructures, and how this model can be used to design heterogeneous metastructures with tailored wave propagation functionalities.
With the rapid proliferation of additive manufacturing and 3D printing technologies, architected cellular solids including truss-like 3D lattice topologies offer the opportunity to program the effective material response through topological design at the mesoscale. The present report summarizes several of the key findings from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. The program set out to explore novel lattice topologies that can be designed to control, redirect, or dissipate energy from one or multiple insult environments relevant to Sandia missions, including crush, shock/impact, vibration, thermal, etc. In the first 4 sections, we document four novel lattice topologies stemming from this study: coulombic lattices, multi-morphology lattices, interpenetrating lattices, and pore-modified gyroid cellular solids, each with unique properties that had not been achieved by existing cellular/lattice metamaterials. The fifth section explores how unintentional lattice imperfections stemming from the manufacturing process, primarily sur face roughness in the case of laser powder bed fusion, serve to cause stochastic response but that in some cases such as elastic response the stochastic behavior is homogenized through the adoption of lattices. In the sixth section we explore a novel neural network screening process that allows such stocastic variability to be predicted. In the last three sections, we explore considerations of computational design of lattices. Specifically, in section 7 using a novel generative optimization scheme to design novel pareto-optimal lattices for multi-objective environments. In section 8, we use computational design to optimize a metallic lattice structure to absorb impact energy for a 1000 ft/s impact. And in section 9, we develop a modified micromorphic continuum model to solve wave propagation problems in lattices efficiently.
Constructing accurate statistical models of critical system responses typically requires an enormous amount of data from physical experiments or numerical simulations. Unfortunately, data generation is often expensive and time consuming. To streamline the data generation process, optimal experimental design determines the 'best' allocation of experiments with respect to a criterion that measures the ability to estimate some important aspect of an assumed statistical model. While optimal design has a vast literature, few researchers have developed design paradigms targeting tail statistics, such as quantiles. In this project, we tailored and extended traditional design paradigms to target distribution tails. Our approach included (i) the development of new optimality criteria to shape the distribution of prediction variances, (ii) the development of novel risk-adapted surrogate models that provably overestimate certain statistics including the probability of exceeding a threshold, and (iii) the asymptotic analysis of regression approaches that target tail statistics such as superquantile regression. To accompany our theoretical contributions, we released implementations of our methods for surrogate modeling and design of experiments in two complementary open source software packages, the ROL/OED Toolkit and PyApprox.
In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.
In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.