The E3 transition in irradiated GaAs observed in deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was recently discovered in Laplace-DLTS to encompass three distinct components. The component designated E3c was found to be metastable, reversibly bleached under minority carrier (hole) injection, with an introduction rate dependent upon Si doping density. It is shown through first-principles modeling that the E3c must be the intimate Si-vacancy pair, best described as a Si sitting in a divacancy Sivv. The bleached metastable state is enabled by a doubly site-shifting mechanism: Upon recharging, the defect undergoes a second site shift rather returning to its original E3c-active configuration via reversing the first site shift. Identification of this defect offers insights into the short-time annealing kinetics in irradiated GaAs.
Structural disorder causes materials’ surface electronic properties, e.g., work function ([Formula: see text]), to vary spatially, yet it is challenging to prove exact causal relationships to underlying ensemble disorder, e.g., roughness or granularity. For polycrystalline Pt, nanoscale resolution photoemission threshold mapping reveals a spatially varying [Formula: see text] eV over a distribution of (111) vicinal grain surfaces prepared by sputter deposition and annealing. With regard to field emission and related phenomena, e.g., vacuum arc initiation, a salient feature of the [Formula: see text] distribution is that it is skewed with a long tail to values down to 5.4 eV, i.e., far below the mean, which is exponentially impactful to field emission via the Fowler–Nordheim relation. We show that the [Formula: see text] spatial variation and distribution can be explained by ensemble variations of granular tilts and surface slopes via a Smoluchowski smoothing model wherein local [Formula: see text] variations result from spatially varying densities of electric dipole moments, intrinsic to atomic steps, that locally modify [Formula: see text]. Atomic step-terrace structure is confirmed with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at several locations on our surfaces, and prior works showed STM evidence for atomic step dipoles at various metal surfaces. From our model, we find an atomic step edge dipole [Formula: see text] D/edge atom, which is comparable to values reported in studies that utilized other methods and materials. Our results elucidate a connection between macroscopic [Formula: see text] and the nanostructure that may contribute to the spread of reported [Formula: see text] for Pt and other surfaces and may be useful toward more complete descriptions of polycrystalline metals in the models of field emission and other related vacuum electronics phenomena, e.g., arc initiation.
The stability of low-index platinum surfaces and their electronic properties is investigated with density functional theory, toward the goal of understanding the surface structure and electron emission, and identifying precursors to electrical breakdown, on nonideal platinum surfaces. Propensity for electron emission can be related to a local work function, which, in turn, is intimately dependent on the local surface structure. The (1×N) missing row reconstruction of the Pt(110) surface is systematically examined. The (1×3) missing row reconstruction is found to be the lowest in energy, with the (1×2) and (1×4) slightly less stable. In the limit of large (1×N) with wider (111) nanoterraces, the energy accurately approaches the asymptotic limit of the infinite Pt(111) surface. This suggests a local energetic stability of narrow (111) nanoterraces on free Pt surfaces that could be a common structural feature in the complex surface morphologies, leading to work functions consistent with those on thermally grown Pt substrates.
At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of electrons and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve transport at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-transport expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.
This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the continuum calculations and the experiments.