Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Developers of computer codes, analysts who use the codes, and decision makers who rely on the results of the analyses face a critical question: How should confidence in modeling and simulation be critically assessed? Verification and validation (V&V) of computational simulations are the primary methods for building and quantifying this confidence. Briefly, verification is the assessment of the accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation is the assessment of the accuracy of a computational simulation by comparison with experimental data. In verification, the relationship of the simulation to the real world is not an issue. In validation, the relationship between computation and the real world, i.e., experimental data, is the issue.
Failure analysis (FA) tools have been applied to analyze tungsten coated polysilicon microengines. These devices were stressed under accelerated conditions at ambient temperatures and pressure. Preliminary results illustrating the failure modes of microengines operated under variable humidity and ultra-high drive frequency will also be shown. Analysis of tungsten coated microengines revealed the absence of wear debris in microengines operated under ambient conditions. Plan view imaging of these microengines using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed no accumulation of wear debris on the surface of the gears or ground plane on microengines operated under standard laboratory conditions. Friction bearing surfaces were exposed and analyzed using the focused ion beam (FIB). These cross sections revealed no accumulation of debris along friction bearing surfaces. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we were able to identify the thickness, elemental analysis, and crystallographic properties of tungsten coated MEMS devices. Atomic force microscopy was also utilized to analyze the surface roughness of friction bearing surfaces.