The peridynamic theory of solid mechanics is applied to modeling the deformation and fracture of micrometer-sized particles made of organic crystalline material. A new peridynamic material model is proposed to reproduce the elastic–plastic response, creep, and fracture that are observed in experiments. The model is implemented in a three-dimensional, meshless Lagrangian simulation code. In the small deformation, elastic regime, the model agrees well with classical Hertzian contact analysis for a sphere compressed between rigid plates. Under higher load, material and geometrical nonlinearity is predicted, leading to fracture. The material parameters for the energetic material CL-20 are evaluated from nanoindentation test data on the cyclic compression and failure of micrometer-sized grains.
This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project developed and applied closely coupled experimental and computational tools to investigate powder compaction across multiple length scales. The primary motivation for this work is to provide connections between powder feedstock characteristics, processing conditions, and powder pellet properties in the context of powder-based energetic components manufacturing. We have focused our efforts on multicrystalline cellulose, a molecular crystalline surrogate material that is mechanically similar to several energetic materials of interest, but provides several advantages for fundamental investigations. We report extensive experimental characterization ranging in length scale from nanometers to macroscopic, bulk behavior. Experiments included nanoindentation of well-controlled, micron-scale pillar geometries milled into the surface of individual particles, single-particle crushing experiments, in-situ optical and computed tomography imaging of the compaction of multiple particles in different geometries, and bulk powder compaction. In order to capture the large plastic deformation and fracture of particles in computational models, we have advanced two distinct meshfree Lagrangian simulation techniques: 1.) bonded particle methods, which extend existing discrete element method capabilities in the Sandia-developed , open-source LAMMPS code to capture particle deformation and fracture and 2.) extensions of peridynamics for application to mesoscale powder compaction, including a novel material model that includes plasticity and creep. We have demonstrated both methods for simulations of single-particle crushing as well as mesoscale multi-particle compaction, with favorable comparisons to experimental data. We have used small-scale, mechanical characterization data to inform material models, and in-situ imaging of mesoscale particle structures to provide initial conditions for simulations. Both mesostructure porosity characteristics and overall stress-strain behavior were found to be in good agreement between simulations and experiments. We have thus demonstrated a novel multi-scale, closely coupled experimental and computational approach to the study of powder compaction. This enables a wide range of possible investigations into feedstock-process-structure relationships in powder-based materials, with immediate applications in energetic component manufacturing, as well as other particle-based components and processes.
Intuition tells us that a rolling or spinning sphere will eventually stop due to the presence of friction and other dissipative interactions. The resistance to rolling and spinning or twisting torque that stops a sphere also changes the microstructure of a granular packing of frictional spheres by increasing the number of constraints on the degrees of freedom of motion. We perform discrete element modeling simulations to construct sphere packings implementing a range of frictional constraints under a pressure-controlled protocol. Mechanically stable packings are achievable at volume fractions and average coordination numbers as low as 0.53 and 2.5, respectively, when the particles experience high resistance to sliding, rolling, and twisting. Only when the particle model includes rolling and twisting friction were experimental volume fractions reproduced.
Using random walk analyses we explore diffusive transport on networks obtained from contacts between isotropically compressed, monodisperse, frictionless sphere packings generated over a range of pressures in the vicinity of the jamming transition p→0. For conductive particles in an insulating medium, conduction is determined by the particle contact network with nodes representing particle centers and edges contacts between particles. The transition rate is not homogeneous, but is distributed inhomogeneously due to the randomness of packing and concomitant disorder of the contact network, e.g., the distribution of the coordination number. A narrow escape time scale is used to write a Markov process for random walks on the particle contact network. This stochastic process is analyzed in terms of spectral density of the random, sparse, Euclidean and real, symmetric, positive, semidefinite transition rate matrix. Results show network structures derived from jammed particles have properties similar to ordered, euclidean lattices but also some unique properties that distinguish them from other structures that are in some sense more homogeneous. In particular, the distribution of eigenvalues of the transition rate matrix follow a power law with spectral dimension 3. However, quantitative details of the statistics of the eigenvectors show subtle differences with homogeneous lattices and allow us to distinguish between topological and geometric sources of disorder in the network.
We present a review and critique of several methods for the simulation of the dynamics of colloidal suspensions at the mesoscale. We focus particularly on simulation techniques for hydrodynamic interactions, including implicit solvents (Fast Lubrication Dynamics, an approximation to Stokesian Dynamics) and explicit/particle-based solvents (Multi-Particle Collision Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics). Several variants of each method are compared quantitatively for the canonical system of monodisperse hard spheres, with a particular focus on diffusion characteristics, as well as shear rheology and microstructure. In all cases, we attempt to match the relevant properties of a well-characterized solvent, which turns out to be challenging for the explicit solvent models. Reasonable quantitative agreement is observed among all methods, but overall the Fast Lubrication Dynamics technique shows the best accuracy and performance. We also devote significant discussion to the extension of these methods to more complex situations of interest in industrial applications, including models for non-Newtonian solvent rheology, non-spherical particles, drying and curing of solvent and flows in complex geometries. This work identifies research challenges and motivates future efforts to develop techniques for quantitative, predictive simulations of industrially relevant colloidal suspension processes.
The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.
In this presentation we examine the accuracy and performance of a suite of discrete-element-modeling approaches to predicting equilibrium and dynamic rheological properties of polystyrene suspensions. What distinguishes each approach presented is the methodology of handling the solvent hydrodynamics. Specifically, we compare stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD), fast lubrication dynamics (FLD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Method-to-method comparisons are made as well as comparisons with experimental data. Quantities examined are equilibrium structure properties (e.g. pair-distribution function), equilibrium dynamic properties (e.g. short- and long-time diffusivities), and dynamic response (e.g. steady shear viscosity). In all approaches we deploy the DLVO potential for colloid-colloid interactions. Comparisons are made over a range of volume fractions and salt concentrations. Our results reveal the utility of such methods for long-time diffusivity prediction can be dubious in certain ranges of volume fraction, and other discoveries regarding the best formulation to use in predicting rheological response.
Nanoparticles are now more than ever being used to tailor materials function and performance in differentiating technologies because of their profound effect on thermo-physical, mechanical and optical properties. The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier, followed by solidification through solvent evaporation/drying/curing/sintering. Unfortunately processing particles as concentrated, fluidized suspensions into useful products remains an art largely because the effect of particle shape and volume fraction on fluidic properties and suspension stability remains unexplored in a regime where particle-particle interaction mechanics is prevalent. To achieve a stronger scientific understanding of the factors that control nanoparticle dispersion and rheology we have developed a multiscale modeling approach to bridge scales between atomistic and molecular-level forces active in dense nanoparticle suspensions. At the largest length scale, two 'coarse-grained' numerical techniques have been developed and implemented to provide for high-fidelity numerical simulations of the rheological response and dispersion characteristics typical in a processing flow. The first is a coupled Navier-Stokes/discrete element method in which the background solvent is treated by finite element methods. The second is a particle based method known as stochastic rotational dynamics. These two methods provide a new capability representing a 'bridge' between the molecular scale and the engineering scale, allowing the study of fluid-nanoparticle systems over a wide range of length and timescales as well as particle concentrations. To validate these new methodologies, multi-million atoms simulations explicitly including the solvent have been carried out. These simulations have been vital in establishing the necessary 'subgrid' models for accurate prediction at a larger scale and refining the two coarse-grained methodologies.