High-quality factor resonant cavities are challenging structures to model in electromagnetics owing to their large sensitivity to minute parameter changes. Therefore, uncertainty quantification (UQ) strategies are pivotal to understanding key parameters affecting the cavity response. We discuss here some of these strategies focusing on shielding effectiveness (SE) properties of a canonical slotted cylindrical cavity that will be used to develop credibility evidence in support of predictions made using computational simulations for this application.
Use of insensitive high explosives (IHEs) has significantly improved ammunition safety because of their remarkable insensitivity to violent cook-off, shock and impact. Triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB) is the IHE used in many modern munitions. Previously, lightning simulations in different test configurations have shown that the required detonation threshold for standard density TATB at ambient and elevated temperatures (250 C) has a sufficient margin over the shock caused by an arc from the most severe lightning. In this paper, the Braginskii model with Lee-More channel conductivity prescription is used to demonstrate how electrical arcs from lightning could cause detonation in TATB. The steep rise and slow decay in typical lightning pulse are used in demonstrating that the shock pressure from an electrical arc, after reaching the peak, falls off faster than the inverse of the arc radius. For detonation to occur, two necessary detonation conditions must be met: the Pop-Plot criterion and minimum spot size requirement. The relevant Pop-Plot for TATB at 250 C was converted into an empirical detonation criterion, which is applicable to explosives subject to shocks of variable pressure. The arc cross-section was required to meet the minimum detonation spot size reported in the literature. One caveat is that when the shock pressure exceeds the detonation pressure the Pop-Plot may not be applicable, and the minimum spot size requirement may be smaller.
The growth of a cylindrical s park discharge channel in water and Lexan is studied using a series of one - dimensional simulations with the finite - element radiation - magnetohydrodynamics code ALEGRA. Computed solutions are analyzed in order to characterize the rate of growth and dynamics of the spark c hannels during the rising - current phase of the drive pulse. The current ramp rate is varied between 0.2 and 3.0 kA/ns, and values of the mechanical coupling coefficient K p are extracted for each case. The simulations predict spark channel expansion veloc ities primarily in the range of 2000 to 3500 m/s, channel pressures primarily in the range 10 - 40 GPa, and K p values primarily between 1.1 and 1.4. When Lexan is preheated, slightly larger expansion velocities and smaller K p values are predicted , but the o verall behavior is unchanged.
The goal of this project was to develop a device that uses electric fields to grasp and possibly levitate LIGA parts. This non-contact form of grasping would solve many of the problems associated with grasping parts that are only a few microns in dimensions. Scaling laws show that for parts this size, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominant over gravitational forces. This is why micro-parts often stick to mechanical tweezers. If these forces can be controlled under feedback control, the parts could be levitated, possibly even rotated in air. In this project, we designed, fabricated, and tested several grippers that use electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to grasp and release metal LIGA parts. The eventual use of this tool will be to assemble metal and non-metal LIGA parts into small electromechanical systems.