## Predicting the Electronic Structure of Matter on Ultra-Large Scales

The long-standing problem of predicting the electronic structure of matter on ultra-large scales (beyond 100,000 atoms) is solved with machine learning.

The long-standing problem of predicting the electronic structure of matter on ultra-large scales (beyond 100,000 atoms) is solved with machine learning.

MRS communications

Due to a beneficial balance of computational cost and accuracy, real-time time-dependent density-functional theory has emerged as a promising first-principles framework to describe electron real-time dynamics. Here we discuss recent implementations around this approach, in particular in the context of complex, extended systems. Results include an analysis of the computational cost associated with numerical propagation and when using absorbing boundary conditions. We extensively explore the shortcomings for describing electron-electron scattering in real time and compare to many-body perturbation theory. Modern improvements of the description of exchange and correlation are reviewed. In this work, we specifically focus on the Qb@ll code, which we have mainly used for these types of simulations over the last years, and we conclude by pointing to further progress needed going forward.

The focus of this project is to accelerate and transform the workflow of multiscale materials modeling by developing an integrated toolchain seamlessly combining DFT, SNAP, LAMMPS, (shown in Figure 1-1) and a machine-learning (ML) model that will more efficiently extract information from a smaller set of first-principles calculations. Our ML model enables us to accelerate first-principles data generation by interpolating existing high fidelity data, and extend the simulation scale by extrapolating high fidelity data (10^{2} atoms) to the mesoscale (10^{4} atoms). It encodes the underlying physics of atomic interactions on the microscopic scale by adapting a variety of ML techniques such as deep neural networks (DNNs), and graph neural networks (GNNs). We developed a new surrogate model for density functional theory using deep neural networks. The developed ML surrogate is demonstrated in a workflow to generate accurate band energies, total energies, and density of the 298K and 933K Aluminum systems. Furthermore, the models can be used to predict the quantities of interest for systems with more number of atoms than the training data set. We have demonstrated that the ML model can be used to compute the quantities of interest for systems with 100,000 Al atoms. When compared with 2000 Al system the new surrogate model is as accurate as DFT, but three orders of magnitude faster. We also explored optimal experimental design techniques to choose the training data and novel Graph Neural Networks to train on smaller data sets. These are promising methods that need to be explored in the future.

Physical Review B

We present a numerical modeling workflow based on machine learning which reproduces the total energies produced by Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) at finite electronic temperature to within chemical accuracy at negligible computational cost. Based on deep neural networks, our workflow yields the local density of states (LDOS) for a given atomic configuration. From the LDOS, spatially resolved, energy-resolved, and integrated quantities can be calculated, including the DFT total free energy, which serves as the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the atoms. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach for both solid and liquid metals and compare results between independent and unified machine-learning models for solid and liquid aluminum. Our machine-learning density functional theory framework opens up the path towards multiscale materials modeling for matter under ambient and extreme conditions at a computational scale and cost that is unattainable with current algorithms.

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A finite temperature version of 'exact-exchange' density functional theory (EXX) has been implemented in Sandia's Socorro code. The method uses the optimized effective potential (OEP) formalism and an efficient gradient-based iterative minimization of the energy. The derivation of the gradient is based on the density matrix, simplifying the extension to finite temperatures. A stand-alone all-electron exact-exchange capability has been developed for testing exact exchange and compatible correlation functionals on small systems. Calculations of eigenvalues for the helium atom, beryllium atom, and the hydrogen molecule are reported, showing excellent agreement with highly converged quantumMonte Carlo calculations. Several approaches to the generation of pseudopotentials for use in EXX calculations have been examined and are discussed. The difficult problem of finding a correlation functional compatible with EXX has been studied and some initial findings are reported.

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We report the implementation of an iterative scheme for calculating the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP). Given an energy functional that depends explicitly on the Kohn-Sham wave functions, and therefore, implicitly on the local effective potential appearing in the Kohn-Sham equations, a gradient-based minimization is used to find the potential that minimizes the energy. Previous work has shown how to find the gradient of such an energy with respect to the effective potential in the zero-temperature limit. We discuss a density-matrix-based derivation of the gradient that generalizes the previous results to the finite temperature regime, and we describe important optimizations used in our implementation. We have applied our OEP approach to the Hartree-Fock energy expression to perform Exact Exchange (EXX) calculations. We report our EXX results for common semiconductors and ordered phases of hydrogen at zero and finite electronic temperatures. We also discuss issues involved in the implementation of forces within the OEP/EXX approach.

10 Results