Publications / Journal Article

Remote Distributed Vibration Sensing Through Opaque Media Using Permanent Magnets

Chen, Yi; Mazumdar, Anirban; Brooks, Carlton F.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Bond, Stephen D.; Nemer, Martin N.

Vibration sensing is critical for a variety of applications from structural fatigue monitoring to understanding the modes of airplane wings. In particular, remote sensing techniques are needed for measuring the vibrations of multiple points simultaneously, assessing vibrations inside opaque metal vessels, and sensing through smoke clouds and other optically challenging environments. In this paper, we propose a method which measures high-frequency displacements remotely using changes in the magnetic field generated by permanent magnets. We leverage the unique nature of vibration tracking and use a calibrated local model technique developed specifically to improve the frequency-domain estimation accuracy. The results show that two-dimensional local models surpass the dipole model in tracking high-frequency motions. A theoretical basis for understanding the effects of electronic noise and error due to correlated variables is generated in order to predict the performance of experiments prior to implementation. Simultaneous measurements of up to three independent vibrating components are shown. The relative accuracy of the magnet-based displacement tracking with respect to the video tracking ranges from 40 to 190 μ m when the maximum displacements approach ±5 mm and when sensor-to-magnet distances vary from 25 to 36 mm. Last, vibration sensing inside an opaque metal vessel and mode shape changes due to damage on an aluminum beam are also studied using the wireless permanent-magnet vibration sensing scheme.