Publications / Journal Article

Simulation of powder bed metal additive manufacturing microstructures with coupled finite difference-Monte Carlo method

Rodgers, Theron R.; Moser, Daniel M.; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Jackson, Olivia D.; Carroll, Jay D.; Jared, Bradley H.; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Mitchell, John A.; Madison, Jonathan D.

Grain-scale microstructure evolution during additive manufacturing is a complex physical process. As with traditional solidification methods of material processing (e.g. casting and welding), microstructural properties are highly dependent on the solidification conditions involved. Additive manufacturing processes however, incorporate additional complexity such as remelting, and solid-state evolution caused by subsequent heat source passes and by holding the entire build at moderately high temperatures during a build. We present a three-dimensional model that simulates both solidification and solid-state evolution phenomena using stochastic Monte Carlo and Potts Monte Carlo methods. The model also incorporates a finite-difference based thermal conduction solver to create a fully integrated microstructural prediction tool. The three modeling methods and their coupling are described and demonstrated for a model study of laser powder-bed fusion of 300-series stainless steel. The investigation demonstrates a novel correlation between the mean number of remelting cycles experienced during a build, and the resulting columnar grain sizes.