Meshfree methods on manifolds for hydrodynamic flows on curved surfaces: A Generalized Moving Least-Squares (GMLS) approach
We utilize generalized moving least squares (GMLS) to develop meshfree techniques for discretizing hydrodynamic flow problems on manifolds. We use exterior calculus to formulate incompressible hydrodynamic equations in the Stokesian regime and handle the divergence-free constraints via a generalized vector potential. This provides less coordinate-centric descriptions and enables the development of efficient numerical methods and splitting schemes for the fourth-order governing equations in terms of a system of second-order elliptic operators. Using a Hodge decomposition, we develop methods for manifolds having spherical topology. We show the methods exhibit high-order convergence rates for solving hydrodynamic flows on curved surfaces. The methods also provide general high-order approximations for the metric, curvature, and other geometric quantities of the manifold and associated exterior calculus operators. The approaches also can be utilized to develop high-order solvers for other scalar-valued and vector-valued problems on manifolds.