EMPIRE-PIC Code Verification of a Cold Diode
This report presents the code verification of EMPIRE-PIC to the analytic solution to a cold diode which was first derived by Jaffe. The cold diode was simulated using EMPIRE-PIC and the error norms were computed based on the Jaffe solution. The diode geometry is one-dimensional and uses the EMPIRE electrostatic field solver. After a transient start-up phase as the electrons first cross the anode-cathode gap, the simulations reach an equilibrium where the electric potential and electric field are approximately steady. The expected spatial order of convergence for potential, electric field and particle velocity are observed.