Beryllium-driven structural evolution at the divertor surface
Erosion of the beryllium first wall material in tokamak reactors has been shown to result in transport and deposition on the tungsten divertor. Experimental studies of beryllium implantation in tungsten indicate that mixed W-Be intermetallic deposits can form, which have lower melting temperatures than tungsten and can trap tritium at higher rates. To better understand the formation and growth rate of these intermetallics, cumulative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both high and low energy beryllium deposition in tungsten were performed. In both cases, a W-Be mixed material layer (MML) emerged at the surface within several nanoseconds, either through energetic implantation or a thermally-activated exchange mechanism, respectively. While some ordering of the material into intermetallics occurred, fully ordered structures did not emerge from the deposition simulations. Targeted MD simulations of the MML to further study the rate of Be diffusion and intermetallic growth rates indicate that for both cases, the gradual re-structuring of the material into an ordered intermetallic layer is beyond accessible MD time scales(≼1 μs). However, the rapid formation of the MML within nanoseconds indicates that beryllium deposition can influence other plasma species interactions at the surface and begin to alter the tungsten material properties. Therefore, beryllium deposition on the divertor surface, even in small amounts, is likely to cause significant changes in plasma-surface interactions and will need to be considered in future studies.