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Jeff Tsao is currently a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories, and coordinator for Sandia’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Program.
He has a BS in math and MS in EE from Stanford; and a PhD in Applied Physics from Harvard where his advisors were Nico Bloembergen, Eli Yablonovitch and Itamar Burak.
From 1981 to 1991, he was research staff, first at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory where he studied laser microchemistry, then at Sandia where he studied semiconductor epitaxy.
From 1991 to 2001, he managed various semiconductor materials research departments at Sandia, then, while on entrepreneurial leave, was VP of R&D at E2O Communications, a pre-IPO fiber communications company. He also took a sabbatical during this period at the Institute of Materials Research and Engineering in Singapore, where he developed and gave a comprehensive series of twelve lectures on compound semiconductor epitaxy.
From 2001 to 2013, he became a “community organizer,” spearheading white papers, reports and programs which helped set larger national and global research directions, including in solid-state lighting.
Beginning in 2013, Jeff began to explore the “science of science” – how to understand and nurture research itself as a complex adaptive (and learning) system.
9-Page C.V. (January 2020)
SCIENCE OF SCIENCE AND COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS
(JY Tsao) (SAND2019-15148 PE)
Talk (with notes) given at DOE/EERE/BTO (Building Technologies Office) on January 9, 2020. The talk builds on recent work on creative outcome after a piece of research has been done, applying it to anticipatory creative outcome before the research has been done.
(JY Tsao, CL Ting, CM Johnson) (SAND2019-5800 J) (Rev Gen Psych 23(3) 279-292, 2019)
Paper builds on the work of Dean Simonton to develop a definition for creative outcome (especially in scientific and technological research) as useful learning and implausible utility.
(V Narayanamurti and JY Tsao) (SAND2018-1548 J) (MRS Energy & Sustainability doi:10.1557/mre.2018.9, 2018)
Paper raises for debate and discussion the growing mis-control and mis-protection of U.S. energy research. This flawed approach originates in natural human tendencies exacerbated by an historical misunderstanding of research and development, science and technology, and the relationships between them. We outline the origin of the mis-control and mis-protection, and propose two guiding principles to mitigate them and instead nurture research: (i) focus on people, not projects; and (ii) culturally insulate research from development, but not science from technology.
Commentary: The social science of creativity and research practice: Physical scientists, take notice, T Odumosu, JY Tsao, V Narayanamurti, Physics Today 68, 8-9 (2015) (SAND2016-0135 C).
Commentary builds on the work of Dean Simonton to develop a definition for creative outcome (especially in scientific and technological research) as useful learning and implausible utility.
Art of Research: A Divergent/Convergent Thinking Framework and Opportunities for Science-Based Approaches (SAND2017-7430 O)
(G.E. Avina, C.D. Schunn, A.R. Silva, T.L. Bauer, G.W. Crabtree, C.M. Johnson, T. Odumosu, S.T. Picraux, R.K. Sawyer, R.P. Schneider, R. Sun, G.J. Feist, V. Narayanamurti, J.Y. Tsao; Chapter 14 in E. Subrahmanian, T. Odumosu, J.Y. Tsao, Eds., Engineering a Better Future (Springer, 2018, SAND2018-10125 B)
Book chapter summarizing the conclusions of a Forum and Roundtable, held at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, June 5-7,2013, initiating a dialog between the two communities: distinguished practitioners of the art of research and experts in the emerging science of research. The Forum and Roundtable had a dual focus: to identify science that can be applied to improving how research is done and to identify ways in which Sandia could apply such to its own processes.
Engineering the Ultimate Dynamical Social System: what we know and don’t know about how scientists do science
Talk given at Complex 2012 (Santa Fe, 2012) (SAND 2012-10354C).
This talk discussed how the system of science is a complex adaptive system and how it might be analyzable within a framework of a co-evolving dual network of people and ideas.
(Curtis M. Johnson, George A. Backus, Theresa J. Brown, Richard Colbaugh, Katherine A. Jones, Jeffrey Y. Tsao) (SAND 2011-9347P and SAND 2012-3320) (October 2011)
This white paper made the case for Sandia National Laboratories investments in complex adaptive systems science and technology (S&T) -- investments that could enable higher-value-added and more-robustly-engineered solutions to challenges of importance to Sandia’s national security mission and to the nation.
A Brief History of Sandia National Laboratories and the Department of Energy’s Office of Science: Interplay between Science, Technology, and Mission
(Jeff Tsao, Jerry Simmons, Sam Collis, Andy McIlroy, Sam Myers, Tom Picraux, Fred Vook) (SAND 2011-5462) (October 2011)
This report reviews the history of Sandia’s fundamental science programs supported by the Office of Science.
(Jeff Tsao) (SAND 2013-7804 P) (June 2011)
This presentation was given at a strategic planning discussion meeting at Sandia, and discussed bi-translational S&T, something that might be called a virtuous “Casimir’s Spiral,” in which science leads to new technology, while technology leads to new science.
Galileo’s Stream: A Framework for Understanding Knowledge Production (Jeff Tsao, Kevin Boyack, Mike Coltrin, Jessica Turnley, Wil Gauster) (SAND 2006-7622J) (Research Policy 37, 330-352) (March 2008)
This paper introduced a new framework for understanding knowledge production in which: knowledge is produced in stages (along a research to development continuum) and in three discrete categories (science and understanding, tools and technology, and societal use and behavior); and knowledge in the various stages and categories is produced both non-interactively and interactively.
Consumer Preferences and Funding Priorities in Scientific Research (Jeff Tsao) (Science and Public Policy 16, 294-298) (October 1989)
This paper discussed the possibilities for a de-centralized market-oriented system for funding scientific research, in which researchers receive a form of royalty for the use of their published papers.
The Electrification of Energy: Long-Term Trends and Opportunities (JY Tsao, EF Schubert, R Fouquet, M Lave) (SAND2017-12043 J) (MRS Energy and Sustainability 5, E7 (2018))
Three powerful long-term historical trends in the electrification of energy by free-fuel sources are presented and analyzed. These trends point toward a future in which energy is affordable, abundant, and efficiently deployed; with major economic, geo-political, and environmental benefits to humanity.
Rebound Effects for Lighting (Harry Saunders, Jeff Tsao) (SAND 2010-1559 J) (SAND 2012-5124J) (Energy Policy 49, 477-478 (2012))
In this Communication, we seek to clarify confusion regarding our 2010 Journal of Physics article on historical rebound effects for lighting, which showed that global energy use for lighting has experienced 100% rebound over 300 years, six continents, and five technologies. We argue that our results have been misunderstood by some to mean lighting efficiency gains are counterproductive, and we instead argue for vigorously promoting improved lighting technologies.
Solid-State Lighting: An Energy Economics Perspective (Jeff Tsao, Harry Saunders, Randy Creighton, Mike Coltrin, Jerry Simmons) (SAND 2010-1559J) (Journal of Physics D 43, 354001 (2010))
In this paper, we provide estimates of the potentially massive shifts due to solid-state lighting of (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption, and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption.
The World’s Appetite for Light: Empirical Data and Trends Spanning Three Centuries and Six Continents (Jeff Tsao, Paul Waide) (SAND 2008-4246J) (LEUKOS 6, 259-281) (Apr 2010)
In this paper, we collected and self-consistently analyzed data for per-capita consumption of artificial light, per-capita gross domestic product, and ownership cost of light. The data span a wide range (three centuries, six continents, five lighting technologies, and five orders of magnitude), and are consistent with a linear variation of per-capita consumption of light with the ratio between per-capita gross domestic product and ownership cost of light.
The Rebound Effect: An Analysis of the Empirical Data for Lighting (Jeff Tsao, Paul Waide, Harry Saunders) (Dec 2008) (SAND 2008-7959C) with notes
This talk was given at the
28th USAEE/IAEE North American Conference in
These viewgraphs are
based on a tutorial lecture given for a high school physics class at the
Basic Research Needs in Solid-State Lighting (Julie Phillips, Paul Burrows, Chairs) (October 2006)
This report is based on a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science’s Workshop on Solid-State Lighting (SSL), May 22–24, 2006, chaired by Julie Phillips and Paul Burrows. It examines the gap separating current state-of-the-art SSL technology from an energy efficient, high-quality, and economical SSL technology suitable for general illumination; and identifies the most significant fundamental scientific challenges and research directions that would enable that gap to be bridged.
This white paper asks and answers a series of questions regarding the potential of the sun to supply energy to the world. The questions are drawn in large part from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science’s recent report on Basic Research Needs in Solar Energy Utilization. The answers are given in a format suitable for a lay technical audience, and are supplemented by detailed calculations and comprehensive references.
Basic Research Needs in Solar Energy Utilization (Nate Lewis, George Crabtree, Chairs) (October 2005)
This report is based on a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science’s Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18–21, 2005, chaired by Nate Lewis and George Crabtree. It examines the challenges and opportunities for the development of solar energy as a competitive energy source and identifies the technical barriers to large-scale implementation of solar energy and the basic research directions showing promise to overcome them.
semiconductor materials and devices
Ultrawide-Bandgap Semiconductors: Research Opportunities and Challenges (J. Y. Tsao S. Chowdhury M. A. Hollis D. Jena N. M. Johnson K. A. Jones R. J. Kaplar S. Rajan C. G. Van de Walle E. Bellotti C. L. Chua R. Collazo M. E. Coltrin J. A. Cooper K. R. Evans S. Graham T. A. Grotjohn E. R. Heller M. Higashiwaki M. S. Islam P. W. Juodawlkis M. A. Khan A. D. Koehler J. H. Leach U. K. Mishra R. J. Nemanich R. C. N. Pilawa‐Podgurski J. B. Shealy Z. Sitar M. J. Tadjer A. F. Witulski M. Wraback J. A. Simmons) (SAND2017-10150 J) Advanced Electronic Materials 4, 1600501 (2018).
This article reviews the materials, physics, device and application research opportunities and challenges associated with ultrawide-bandgap semiconductors.
Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical fabrication of epitaxial InGaN quantum dots (X Xiao, AJ Fischer, GT Wang, P. Lu, DD Koleske, ME Coltrin, JB Wright, S Liu, I Brener, GS Subramania, JY Tsao) (SAND2014-16995PE) Nano Lett. 14, 5616-5620 (2014).
We demonstrate a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10 nm size regime: quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching.
This is a book started in
2002, worked on for about a year, then abandoned. Its intent was to have been to provide an integrated
guide to the science, technology and applications of the compound III-V
semiconductors. Its unique aspect was
to have been its emphasis and organization around an objective database (linked file is in procite
format) of the most highly-cited journal articles and
Optically-pumped long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high modulation bandwidth (MV Ramana Murty, D Xu, CC Lin, CL Shieh, JY Tsao, J Cheng, Appl Phys Lett 86, 061108, 2006)
Electrically pumped long-wavelength VCSEL with air gap DBR and methods of fabrication (CL Shieh, JY Tsao, US Patent 6,696,308, February 24 2004)
Segmented-mirror VCSEL (JY Tsao, CL Shieh, PD Dapkus, J Yang, US Patent 6,594,294, July 15 2003)
Semiconductor Epitaxy: Science, Technology and Applications 40MB (July-November 1998) (SAND 2007-1800P)
This series of twelve
lectures was given over four months at the
This book gathers together the basic materials science principles that apply to MBE, and treats in great depth its most important aspects. Throughout, it makes use of thermodynamic and statistical calculations based on intuitive and physically motivated semi-empirical models.
LEDs for Photons, Physiology and Food (PM Pattison, JY Tsao, GC Brainard and B Bugbee) Nature 563, 493-500 (2018) (SAND2018-13453 J)
Perspectives article on the future of LED lighting: not just more energy efficient, but vastly better able to control the color, intensity and distribution of light, enabling light to be used both as a signal for specific physiological responses in humans and plants as well as an efficient fuel for fresh food production.
LED Lighting Efficacy: Status and Directions (PM Pattison, M Hansen, JY Tsao) (SAND2018-7339 J)
Review article in special March-April 2018 issue of Comptes Rendus Physique on “LEDs: The New Revolution in Lighting,” edited by Claude Weisbuch, Erich Spitz and Aurelien David.
The New World of Engineered SSL: Past & Present, but mostly Future (5 SSL Grand Challenges) (JY Tsao) (SAND2017-12137C)
Plenary talk given at the OSA Light Energy Environment Boulder CO November 8, 2017.
Roland Haitz: Twenty Years of Mentorship, Collaboration and Inspiration (JY Tsao) (SAND2015-7782S) Unpublished (2015)
Memorial tribute to Roland Haitz, one of the great pioneers and visionaries of solid-state lighting technology.
The Blue LED Nobel Prize: Historical context, current scientific understanding, human benefit (JY Tsao, J Han, RH Haitz, PM Pattison) (SAND2015-4440J) Ann. Phys. 527, A53-A61 (2015)
Expert opinion for special issue containing the Blue LED Nobel Prize Lectures.
(JY Tsao, MH Crawford, ME Coltrin, AJ Fischer, DD Koleske, GS Subramania, GT Wang, JJ Wierer, RF Karlicek) (SAND 2014-3937J) Advanced Optical Materials 2, 809-836 (2014)
Review of the current status of solid-state lighting relative to its ultimate potential to be “smart” and ultra-efficient.
(Jon Wierer, Jeff Tsao, Dmitry Sizov) Laser & Photonics Reviews (August, 2013) (SAND2013-1956)
This article compares LEDs and LDs (laser diodes) for future SSL: their current state-of-the-art input-power-density-dependent power conversion efficiencies; potential improvements both in their peak power-conversion efficiencies and in the input power densities at which those efficiencies peak; and their economics for practical SSL.
(Sasha Neumann, Jon Wierer, Wendy Davis, Yoshi Ohno, Steve Brueck, Jeff Tsao) Optics Express 19, A982-990 (2011) SAND2011-2743J.
This work tests the common belief that white light produced by a set of lasers of different colors would not be of high enough quality for general illumination.
Solid-state lighting: ‘The case’ 10 years after and future prospects (Roland Haitz, Jeff Tsao) (SAND 2010-4208J) Physica Status Solidi A 208, 17-29 (2011).
Ten years ago, a white paper titled “The Case for a National Research Program on Semiconductor Lighting” outlined the promise and potential of semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for general illumination. Since then, investments in the now-renamed field of solid-state lighting (SSL) have accelerated and considerable progress has been made, not always in the directions envisioned at the time. In this paper, two of the original four authors comment on the white paper’s hits and misses, while making the original white paper available archivally as supplemental online material. Finally, we make new predictions for the coming 10-20 years.
Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology and Economic Perspective (Jeff Tsao, Mike Coltrin, Mary Crawford, Jerry Simmons) (July 2010) (SAND 2009-5551J) (Proceedings of the IEEE 98, 1162-1179)
In this article, we present a high-level overview of solid-state lighting, with an emphasis on white lighting suitable for general illumination. We characterize in detail solid-state lighting’s past and potential-future evolution using various performance and cost metrics, with special attention paid to inter-relationships between these metrics imposed by human factors, technology and economic considerations.
This talk was given at the International Conference on Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (ICMOVPE) May 24 2010 in Lake Tahoe, NV.
The Next Semiconductor Revolution: This Time It’s Lighting! (Jeff Tsao) (Mar 2010) (SAND 2010-1957P) and video
This tutorial talk for students and the general public was given at the Albuquerque Academy March 31 2010 in Albuquerque NM.
(Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives (Jeff Tsao) (Jan 2010) (SAND 2010-1090C) and video
This talk was given at Photonics West Jan 26 2010 in San Francisco, CA.
Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting (Julie Phillips, Mike Coltrin, Mary Craford, Art Fischer, Mike Krames, Regina Mueller-Mach, Gerd Mueller, Yoshi Ohno, Lauren Rohwer, Jerry Simmons, Jeff Tsao) (SAND 2007-5470J) and figures (Laser and Photonics Reviews 1, 307-333 (November 2007)
This review article discusses approaches to inorganic solid-state lighting that could conceivably achieve ultra-high (70% or greater) efficiency, and the significant research questions and challenges that would need to be addressed if one or more of these approaches were to be realized.
recursive process for mapping and clustering technology literatures: case
study in solid-state lighting (
SAND 2007-1802 W
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