You’d think it would be easy to use seismic waves to find tunnels dug by smugglers of drugs, weapons, or people.
You’d be wrong.
Sandian Nedra Bonal (6913), who has spent much of her career studying shallow geophysics, is nearing the end of a two-year Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, “Improving Shallow Tunnel Detection From Surface Seismic Methods,” aimed at understanding the environment around tunnels and why seismic data finds tunnels in some cases but not others.
Her eventual goal is to come up with a seismic detection process for the border and other areas where tunnels pose a security threat.
When tunnels are found today, they’re found by tips from people rather than by scientific methods, she says.
“It would be great if we could use this to do a better job with tunnel detection, that you could scan an area and know if there is or is not a tunnel and find it and stop it,” she says.
If researchers discover the parameters to pinpoint tunnels, the next step would be to develop streamlined seismic methods that would be more practical for the Border Patrol and military.
‘I thought we should see these things’
The LDRD arose from earlier work at Sandia detecting tunnels at fairly shallow depths — 10 to 12 meters, roughly 32 to 39 feet. Nedra says she was surprised when standard refraction and reflection processing techniques used in that work could not successfully pinpoint some tunnels.
“I thought we should see these things and we really weren’t,” she says.
Researchers speculate the difficulty might be due to what’s called a halo effect around a tunnel, in which fracturing and other geological considerations create diffuse boundaries and hide the tunnel, she says. The earlier, broader research produced several successes in tunnel detection, but was not focused specifically on what happens in the area where tunnel and earth meet, which might help explain why tunnels can be detected in some cases but not others.
Nedra is looking at whether seismic waves are strongly impacted by fracturing or saturation of pores in rock or soil, as well as varying pressures at different depths. Physical processes change from shallow depths to deeper depths, but it isn’t clear just where that change occurs, she says.
In addition, the halo effect is both asymmetrical and complex.
“It depends on the geology or the soil as well as the seasonal variation, rain events, and the relation to the water table,” she says. “So it’s a pretty complex regime just from the hydrology standpoint.”
Anomalous areas may be key
Studies still have to be done, but asymmetry may turn out to be an advantage because an asymmetric area might appear to be more uncharacteristic than a symmetrical one, Nedra says. “These anomalous areas are what we may identify as tunnels in the data,” she says.
She began the LDRD project by figuring out what gaps existed in current scientific knowledge, then modeling real-world scenarios based on collected data that would affect hydrology models and in turn, seismic waves — an area’s soil and other geology, how deep fracturing goes into the rock around a tunnel in a particular environment, the probable tunnel size, its relation to the water table, and seasonal variations in that relationship.
“We try to get some bounds to this problem,” Nedra says. “If we can’t see it in the best-case scenario, then there’s really no point in trying to see it in more subtle factors that may affect the seismic waves.”
The team ran the hydrology models to get some results, then converted those results into seismic velocities that could be plugged into Sandia’s 3-D elastic seismic wave propagation simulation code, Nedra says. These results will produce synthetic seismograms that will be compared to field data collected in the real environment and can be used to develop other processing techniques. That will in turn produce data that’s expected to look like data collected in a real environment in the field. “We can then compare the effects of a tunnel versus no tunnel and changes in fracturing and saturation of the tunnel halo versus no changes to assess their impact on seismic waves,” she says.
‘A middle regime where I’m looking . . .’
The standard used to show the relationship of saturation in pores in rock or earth to seismic velocities is an oil industry standard called the Biot-Gassmann theory. Nedra says, however, few experiments have tested that theory at shallow depths where border tunnels are commonly dug.
“The few that have been done have shown that the Biot-Gassmann theory tends to overestimate the velocities for those unconsolidated near-surface materials where the pressures perhaps aren’t as great” as at depths where the oil industry operates, Nedra says.
The very near surface behaves one way, but at some point behaviors change because of greater pressures and other factors, she says. The Biot-Gassmann theory holds well at greater depths where pressure is more intense and the rock is more consolidated, while another theory, Brutsaert, describes what happens very close to the surface.
“But there’s sort of a middle regime where I’m looking where I’m not real sure either one of them works as well as they need to,” Nedra says. She expects to have results soon to compare with prior seismic data to address the issue.
Experimentally verifying at what depth or in what materials competing theories work best lies outside the scope of her LDRD, but she hopes for funding to work on those puzzles. “I think there are still plenty of questions we have that need to be answered but I am very excited about the progress made so far. I have been able to detect a tunnel that I previously had not seen by other analyses,” Nedra says.