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Vol. 55, Special Issue        February 2003
[Sandia National Laboratories]

Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0165    ||   Livermore, California 94550-0969
Tonopah, Nevada; Nevada Test Site; Amarillo, Texas

Back to Lab News Sandia Labs Accomplishments 2003 index

Nonproliferation programs and arms control technology

Sandia was selected by the City and Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach to serve as security consultant and project manager for their Operation Safe Commerce (OSC) efforts. OSC is a US government-sponsored effort to improve the security of maritime commerce without negatively impacting the necessary flow of goods through the supply chain. Sandia security and systems analyses of the ports and their supply chains will lead to the development and implementation of improved processes and technologies. Sandia will also provide security measures in the two ports as well as in the ports of major overseas trade partners. (5300, 5800) Bryon Cloer, bkcloer@sandia.gov

The GPS Nuclear Detonation Detection System (GPS/NDS) completed another successful year of on-orbit operations in support of DOE/NNSA's nuclear treaty verification mission. The payloads, which fly on each of the 24 Global Positioning Satellites, have performed their function without a mission-critical failure for more than 20 years. That works out to over 500 sensor-years on orbit without a mission failure. These payloads provide global monitoring for endoatmospheric nuclear events as well as the processing for space NUDET monitoring. (5700) Anthony Medina, ajmedin@sandia.gov

The Sandia-designed Multispectral Thermal Imaging satellite completed its second year on orbit last February, surpassing its system specification of 18 months. The system has collected more than 5,300 multispectral data cubes for a wide variety of government customers including NNSA, military, and civilian organizations. Having completed its NNSA goals, the system is now performing the majority of its collections for other government agencies. The system is operating nominally with few flight problems, and we expect it will meet its goal of three years of orbital operations. (5700) Anthony Medina, ajmedin@sandia.gov

The US Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS) Ground System includes L-Band antennas and receivers that process L1 navigation signals and L3 USNDS signals from the GPS constellation. Upgraded Ground System equipment has been installed and tested at Schriever AFB in Colorado Springs. Certification testing for this equipment has been completed, and the system is now fully operational. The upgrade enables improved satellite visibility, tracking capability and crosslink reception, and significantly enhances the nation's ability to perform space-based nuclear weapons treaty monitoring. (2600, 5700) Lorraine Baca, lsbaca@sandia.gov

The US State Department approved and DOE sponsored the establishment of a cooperative moni- toring center in Amman, Jordan, modeled after the CMC at Sandia in Albuquerque. It will provide a forum for regional training on nonproliferation technologies, development of new monitoring capabilities, monitoring demonstrations, and multidisciplinary interactions among scientists, engineers, and policy-makers. The CMC@Amman will be located at Jordan's National Laboratory, the Royal Scientific Society. (5300) Bryon Cloer, bkcloer@sandia.gov

In the aftermath of 9/11, Sandia initiated a dialog between the directors of the US and Russian nuclear weapons laboratories on counterterrorism cooperation. In April 2002, with the endorsement of their respective agency leadership, the lab directors agreed to begin work immediately on the development of advanced sensors for detection of fissile material and explosives. Working groups were formed for technical collaboration in the areas of Threat Definition, Materials Detection, and Incident Response/Recovery. Presidents Bush and Putin highlighted this initiative at their May 2002 summit in Moscow in their Joint Statement on Counterterrorism Cooperation. (5300, 5900, 5800) Bryon Cloer, bkcloer@sandia.gov

Past and current Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) Regional Security experience and systems engineering expertise have stimulated US interagency and foreign government requests for Sandia to serve as technical advisor on South Asia border security issues. In this role, Sandia contributed to Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage's talking points for his visit to the region during the India-Pakistan nuclear crisis (May- June 2002). This expertise also resulted in requests for briefings to ministerial level Indian and Pakistani officials, as well as to Sandia's participation in the Department of State-led Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism and the DoD-led Security Cooperation Group (SCG) with India. (5300) Bryon Cloer, bkcloer@sandia.gov

Following the events of 9/11, the US National Security Council directed that security enhancements at the Uzbekistan Institute of Nuclear Physics nuclear reactor be accelerated in response to an urgent request from the President of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences. DOE and NNSA selected Sandia to lead US assistance to enhance security for the highly enriched uranium-fueled facility. Enhancements were completed in Spring 2002. (5300) Bryon Cloer, bkcloer@sandia.gov

A multicenter team completed fabrication and flight qualification of an innovative satellite-based optical sensor. This sensor provides a revolutionary level of processing behind each pixel through a unique 3-dimensional microelectronics package. In 1.5 cubic inches, its event-driven architecture provides sensing and signal processing at the equivalent speed of more than a gigabit per second, a level of performance never before approached in a package near this volume. The package has been successfully integrated into the next level of assembly and should be delivered and launched in 2003. (1700, 5700, 14100) Anthony Medina, ajmedin@sandia.gov

Demonstration of a 3-inch Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) developed in Center 1700 proved basic functionality for detecting trace explosives. A new construction method improves manufacturability and reduces part count in the IMS using novel low-temperature co-fired ceramic processing techniques and a micromachining process called LIGA. The resultant assemblies are repeatable and manufacturable, requiring a fraction of the former man-hours. This accomplishment will facilitate the future deployment of MicroHound handheld explosives detection units and ease transfer to a commercial producer. (5800, 1700, 14100) Steven Rohde, sbrohde@sandia.gov

A successful demonstration of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Test Bed was held on Kirtland AFB. This was a combined effort of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), DTRA's contractor, the Washington Defense Team, Kirtland AFB, and a multi-lab collaboration of Sandia, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and the Remote Sensing laboratories. The UNWD Test Bed is a congressionally directed/funded program to showcase technology for protecting military installations against unconventionally delivered nuclear weapons, improvised nuclear weapons, and radiological dispersal devices. (5800, 6500, 5900, 2500) Ron Glaser, rfglase@sandia.gov

We led a substantial portion of the Site Security Enhancement Project to significantly improve the security posture at a DOE site. The enhancements were one of NNSA's highest-priority security upgrades and incorporated Safe Secure Trailers modified to accommodate stored materials. The effort successfully installed operational trailers in early 2002, four months after the original assignment. The success was attained through an extraordinary team effort involving NNSA, the site representatives, and broad Sandia organization support. (5800, 10200, 12300, 3100, 6400, 14100) Steve Scott, shscott@sandia.gov

Operational test and evaluation of the Remote Response Platform, funded by the DOE Office of Security, was successfully completed. This technology allows for extremely accurate and rapid response, minimizes exposure for security response personnel, and effectively provides force multiplication. Force-on-force and combat simulation evaluations also have been completed with favorable results. Follow-on remote response platforms are being installed in real operational settings at both a DOE and USAF site. (5800, 3100, 6400) Mike Williams, mgwilli@sandia.gov

Development and fabrication of the Hound II, a chemical detection system that combines a commercial detector with Sandia's patented air sampling and preconcentration technology, was successfully completed. The Hound II enhances the capabilities of hand-held commercial detectors for detecting explosives and illicit drugs by increasing the sampling rate by two orders of magnitude. Field tests to demonstrate Hound II's capabilities were conducted at Pantex and US Customs' Thunder Mountain Center. Licensing and commercialization of the Hound II is currently being investigated. (5800) Karla Simoes, kjsimo@sandia.gov

Sandia has developed a toolbox of radio frequency communication elements that may play important roles in identifying, tracking, and targeting terrorist activities. We demonstrated the utility of our microtransmitter in a Navy Fleet Battle Exercise in August. In a recent test at China Lake, our new spread-spectrum tag was used to remotely verify that an Advanced Anti-Radiation Missile made a direct hit on a simulated surface-to-air missile site. Support to develop the elements of the toolbox has been provided by DARPA, US Navy, and Sandia LDRD funds. (2300, 5900, 5700, 6500) Michael Murphy, mbmurph@sandia.gov

Sandia has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of the Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Vision 2015 Study. This project is examining the technology the Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) will need in the year 2015 to carry out its mission of global monitoring of nuclear testing. This system includes satellites, seismic stations, and other monitoring assets. Phase 1 included an evaluation of the monitoring and system requirements. Phase 2 was an evaluation of technology development necessary to build the new systems. AFTAC is looking to Sandia to complete Phase 3 (roadmap to 2105 and systems architecture) over the next several years. (5700)

Sandia is developing the Advanced Atmospheric Research Equipment (AARE) to provide the US Air Force with the ability to continue a 50-year-plus mission of monitoring foreign nuclear tests. AARE will provide a unique capability to do treaty monitoring and sampling against worldwide nuclear testing activities. The precursor to AARE, the Atmospheric Research Equipment (ARE), is the only Air Force airborne Nuclear Debris Collection and Analysis asset in service, and it is based on 30- to 40-year-old technology. AARE will replace this aging equipment with modularized systems that can be deployed on any of three designated Air Combat Command TC-135 training aircraft. This approach will save considerable operational costs for the Air Force compared to maintaining a dedicated aircraft for the mission. (2900, 5900, 6500, 9100, 14400) Eva Wallace, etwalla@sandia.gov

Mission Analysis and Simulation Dept. personnel developed new algorithms to provide automated characterization (nuclear or non-nuclear) and associated yield determination of sensor reports from the space-based Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS). These algorithms, to be incorporated into the USNDS ground segment, provide a detailed discrimination analysis of individual optical signals and a rule-based characterization process of the collection of sensor reports from various sensors onboard multiple satellites. The algorithms were vali- dated using 10 years of operational data, along with simulated nuclear detonation data. (6500, 5700) Bill Richard, bdricha@sandia.gov

The PROTECT program, supported by DOE's Chemical and Biological National Security Program, is collaborating with a major international airport on defense of such facilities from chemical and biological terrorist attacks. A vulnerability assessment explored physical security and air handling issues that influence the likelihood and impact of such attacks. Tracer-gas release tests revealed new insights concerning intra- and inter-terminal transport. Finally, chemical and biological detection equip- ment was field-tested, including a gas-phase µChemLab prototype, and early warning sensors designed for real-time detection of biological threats. (8100, 1700, 6200) Susanna Gordon, spgordo@sandia.gov

The AURA (Advanced UV Remote-Sensing Applications) ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence lidar payload, designed for deployment on an unoccupied aerospace vehicle (UAV), successfully detected a variety of known and blind releases of biological warfare agent simulants in tests at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The AURA system discriminated between bio and non-bio releases. The AURA program also developed Ares, a new ground-based portable ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence lidar, for protecting high-value facilities or high-visibility events. Ares uses commercial off-the-shelf components as much as possible to reduce cost. (1100, 2300, 5700, 6100, 8100, 8300, 8400, 8900) W.R. Bolton, wrbolto@sandia.gov

MicroChemLab/CBs are portable, hand-held chemical analysis systems incorporating "lab-on-a-chip" microfluid technologies for detecting chemical and biological attacks. The second-generation (Gen2), liquid-phase protein analyzer, using electrophoretic separations and optical detection, is being developed to detect a broad range of biotoxin and viral agents. Using a modular design, the Gen2 prototype contains two microseparation units that are easy to access and replace. Funded by DOE's Chemical and Biological National Security Program, the µChemLab/CB Gen 2 prototype enables laboratory research and field testing. (8100, 8300, 8700) Art Pontau, aeponta@sandia.gov

The Embedded Reasoning Institute (ERI) is a multidisciplinary research program focused on distributed wireless intelligent sensing and monitoring technologies for weapon systems and emerging threat domains. This year ERI demonstrated two complementary prototype wireless sensing systems focused on hardware and/or software solutions to yield complete system development. The Hybrid Emergency Radiation Detector (HERD) project provided a rapidly deployable wireless sensing network in the hybrid microsystem arena. The Intelligent Monitoring and Analysis project provided decentralized software agent monitoring/ control for weapon storage containers. (8100, 8200, 8900) Nina Berry, nmberry@sandia.gov

Advanced computer simulation and visualization were employed in a powerful new interactive distributed simulation of urban terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction. The capability embodied in the Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) integrates approaches to WMD defense by using simulations to: improve analyses of technology; create user-defined, realistic high-level exercises; allow better understanding of contextual insights; and improve planning and response. The WMD-DAC simulation is helping us design system architectures for wide-area nuclear threat detection and bio-attack detection and mitigation. (8100, 8900) Howard Hirano, hhhiran@sandia.gov

Last modified: March 14, 2003

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