Two Sandia climate study projects are getting a boost this year with the help of $5 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act — the stimulus package. Both are associated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program supported by DOE. The teams, led by Mark Ivey (6338) at Sandia/New Mexico and John Goldsmith (6338) at Sandia/California, are receiving $2.5 million each.
Mark says his team’s share will be used to prepare the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) near Barrow, Alaska, for several new instruments, including scanning cloud and precipitation radars, improved balloon sounding systems, carbon flux instruments, and several new lidar (light detection and ranging) systems.
One of these, a new high-resolution spectral lidar system (see “What is lidar,” below), will allow the researchers to take better measurements of clouds and aerosols and help them build better climate change models. The infrastructure upgrades will include new building platforms, installation of improved power lines, and improved network communications.
Measuring water vapor
The majority of the funding for John’s team will be set aside to develop a new Raman lidar for a permanent facility in Darwin, Australia, and for upgrades on a 15-year-old Raman lidar at a site in the southern Great Plains near Lamont, Okla.
Raman lidar is an active, laser remote sensing instrument used to measure atmospheric water vapor — a measurement important in studying climate change. Water vapor is inhomogeneous and difficult to measure remotely, but Raman lidar enables profiling of water vapor throughout the troposphere.
“We built the first Raman lidar for the ARM site in Oklahoma 15 years ago,” John says. “It has functioned so well that program leaders decided they want a copy for the Darwin site. The money from the Recovery Act is making it possible.”
‘Laser lab in a box’
The equipment in Oklahoma is up and running more than 90 percent of the time year-round and is effectively a “turnkey system” — meaning that it requires almost no operator attention.
John says it is a “laser lab in a box,” housed in a standard shipping container with a window at the top for the laser beam to exit and a telescope and associated optics to measure backscatter radiation. In addition to profiling atmospheric water vapor, the systems developed for the ARM program also profile temperature, clouds, and aerosol particles.
Ivey says the money from the Recovery Act allows the research in Barrow “to take atmospheric measurements that we collect in Barrow and archive in the ARM Climate Research Facility database to a new level.”
“We’ll strengthen our standing as a world-class atmospheric observatory with our improved radar and lidar equipment,” Mark says. “We’ll have a chance to continue our research and obtain a more thorough understanding of clouds and their role in climate change in the Arctic. The Arctic has a significant impact on climate all over the world.”
ARM is the largest global climate change research program supported by DOE. It was created in 1989 to help resolve scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, focusing on the role of clouds and aerosols.
The national and international research communities conduct research at ARM’s three permanent facilities — Southern Great Plains (Oklahoma), Tropical Western Pacific (Australia), and North Slope of Alaska (Barrow) — and a mobile facility. Proposals for use of the facility are reviewed by a science board that makes decisions on which research projects will be conducted at the sites.
Effort started in 1998
Sandia has managed the ARM Climate Research Facility on the North Slope of Alaska since its inception in 1998. Bernie Zak (6338) did the initial planning of the facilities with staff from DOE and other DOE national labs. Mark took over the role of site manager for the North Slope ACRF in 2006, while Bernie continues as North Slope Science Liaison for ACRF.
Staff from Sandia also played key roles in development of the Atmospheric Cloud and Radiation Stations used at the ARM Climate Research Facilities in the Tropical Western Pacific. They also work closely with ACRF staff at Los Alamos National Laboratory on operations in the Tropical Western Pacific and the first ARM Mobile Facility deployed for a few months to a year at a time at sites around the world. -- Chris Burroughs
By Iris Aboytes
Thanks to their experiences at Sandia, 31 teachers are better prepared to teach applied science at school this year. The teachers participated in DOE’s Academies Creating Teacher Scientists (DOE ACTS) summer program. DOE funds this three-year program at several laboratories throughout the complex including Sandia/New Mexico and Sandia/California.
The goals of the ACTS program are to enhance teachers’ content knowledge; to expose them to real-life research to assist them in teaching applied science; to better prepare teachers to encourage students to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math careers; and to encourage them to become science leaders in their schools and districts.
Teachers receive a $3,200 stipend for their work in the program. They are also eligible to receive up to $2,000 in classroom materials and up to $2,000 for professional development activities during the following school year.
Sandia/California conducted the program for the first time this summer and included 10 teachers.
“The mentors, the lectures, and the class lessons were all instrumental in the value of what we gained this summer,” says participant Kari Salomon. “Our students will have even better teachers next year and will have science topics much more current than those in the textbooks.”
The four-week program at Sandia/California involved learning about basic science related to unique scientific and engineering activities. Topics included transportation/combustion energy, hydrogen science, chemistry related to homeland security, and nuclear weapons- related topics.
“We took advantage of our location in the Bay Area and scheduled weekly outings to our science institution partners like the California Academy of Sciences, Exploratorium, The Tech Museum, and NASA Ames,” says Ray Ng (8248).
The focus of the ACTS program at Sandia/New Mexico is to improve middle school teachers’ understanding and knowledge of emerging trends in water resources, energy development and growth, and impacts on the environment, with an emphasis on sustainability.
Joining experts in these fields, teachers participated in a short research experience, took field trips and tours, and heard a variety of speakers — all aimed at improving their understanding of water and energy challenges and potential solutions, science and engineering careers, and strategies for better preparing students for the workforce. By videotaping their ACTS experiments, participants were able to develop and implement professional development opportunities for other teachers. Pedagogy content focused on systems thinking/dynamics.
“We strive to provide content knowledge through experiential learning, using resources that are unique to our national laboratory,” says Amy Tapia (3652),
Sandia/New Mexico program manager. “One of the most rewarding aspects is providing an environment where teachers can expand their own knowledge of scientific applications and rejuvenate their love of science.”
The ACTS program selects teachers from throughout the nation. Participating teachers this year came from California, New Mexico, Alaska, Ohio, Georgia, Minnesota, Kansas, Oregon, Colorado, and Pennsylvania.
“I have really appreciated being part of this program for the past three years,” says Joshua LaClair, who this year completed his final summer as an ACTS teacher.
“It has changed me into a better educator. I hope this program continues to offer other teachers the same experience.” -- Iris Aboytes