Sources

Bauer, S.J., W.P. Gardner & H. Lee, 2019. Noble gas release from bedded rock salt during deformationGeofluids.

Bauer, S.J. & A. Urquhart, 2014. Thermophysical Properties of Reconsolidating Crushed Salt (93 p.) SAND2014–2240. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R.L., A. Ait-Chalel, G. Vouille, S.-M. Tijani, D.F. McTigue, C. Brun-Yaba, S.M. Hassanizadeh, G.M. van der Gissen, H. Holtman & P.N. Mollema, 1997. INTRAVAL Phase 2 WIPP 1 Test Case Report: Modeling of Brine Flow Through Halite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site, (124 p.) SAND97–0788. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R.L. & R.M. Roberts, 2002. Hydrology and hydraulic properties of a bedded evaporite formation, Journal of Hydrology, 259(1–4):66–88.

Bechthold, W., E. Smailos, S. Heusermann, W. Bollingerfehr, B. Barzargan Sabet, T. Rothfuchs, P. Kamlot, J. Grupa, S. Olivella & F.D. Hansen. 2004. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). EUR 20621 EN. European Commission.

Betters, C., J. Vornlocher, T. Paronish, D. Crandall, J. Moore & K.L. Kuhlman, 2020. Computed Tomography Scanning and Geophysical Measurements of the Salado Formation from Boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (44 p.) NETL-TRS-1-2020. Morgantown, WV: National Energy Technology Laboratory.

Blanco-Martin, L. J. Rutqvist, A. Battistelli & J. Birkholzer, 2018. Coupled processes modeling in rock salt and crushed salt including halite solubility constraints: application to disposal of heat-generating nuclear wasteTransport in Porous Media, 124(1):159-182.

Blankenship, D.A. & R.G. Stickney, 1983. Nitrogen Gas Permeability Tests at Avery Island. ONWI-190(3), Rapid City, SD: RE/SPEC, Inc.

Borns, D.J. & J.C. Stormont, 1988a. An Interim Report on Excavation Effect Studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: The Delineation of the Disturbed Rock Zone, (35 p.) SAND87–1375. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Borns, D.J. & J.C. Stormont, 1988b, The Delineation of the Disturbed Rock Zone Surrounding Excavations in Salt, (8 p.) SAND88-2230C. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Boukhalfa, H. P.J. Johnson, D. Ware, D.J. Weaver, S. Otto, B.L. Dozier, P.H. Stauffer, M.M. Mills, E.N. Matteo, N.B. Nemer, C.G. Herrick, K.L. Kuhlman, Y. Wu & J. Rutqvist, 2018. Implementation of Small Diameter Borehole Thermal Experiments at WIPP, (70 p.) LA-UR-18–29203. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bradshaw, R.L. & W.C. McClain, 1971. Project Salt Vault: A Demonstration of the Disposal of High-Activity Solidified Wastes in Underground Salt Mines, (374 p.) ORNL-4555. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Cinar, Y., G. Pusch & V. Reitenbach, 2006. Petrophysical and capillary properties of compacted saltTransport in Porous Media, 64(2):199–228.

Clynne, M.A., R.W. Potter & L.D. White, 1981. Analytical Results of Tagged Synthetic Brine Migration Experiments at Avery Island, Louisiana. USGS Open File Report 81-1137. Menlo Park, CA: US Geological Survey.

Czaikowski, O., J. Dittrich, U. Hertes, K. Jantschik, K. Wieczorek & B. Zehle, 2016. Full Scale Demonstration of Plugs and Seals (DOPAS): Final Technical Report on ELSA Related Testing on Mechanical-Hydraulical Behavior - LASA, (119 p.) GRS-A-3851. Braunschweig, Germany: Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS).

Davies, P.B., 1991. Evaluation of the Role of Threshold Pressure in Controlling Flow of Waste-Generated Gas into Bedded Salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (62 p.) SAND90–3246. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Davies, C. & F. Bernier, 2005. Impact of the Excavation Disturbed or Damaged Zone (EDZ) on the Performance of Radioactive Waste Geologic Repositories, (359 p.) EUR 21028 EN. Luxembourg: European Commission Nuclear Science and Technology.

Deal, D.E., R.J. Abitz, D.S. Belski, J.B. Case, M.E. Crawley, C.A. Givens, P.P.J. Lipponer, D.J. Milligan, J. Meyers, D.W. Powers & M.A. Valdivia, 1995. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Summary Program 1992-1993 Report and Summary of BSEP Since 1982, (294 p.) DOE-WIPP 94–011. Carlsbad, NM: Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

Finley, S.J., D.J. Hanson & R. Parsons, 1992. Small-Scale Brine Inflow Experiments – Data Report Through 6/6/91, (185 p.) SAND91–1956. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Gelbard, F., 1992. Exact Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Model for Brine Inflow to a Borehole in a Disturbed Rock Zone, (109 p.) SAND92–1303. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Guiltinan, E.J., K.L. Kuhlman, J. Rutqvist, M. Hu, H. Boukhalfa, M. Mills, S. Otto, D.J. Weaver, B. Dozier & P.H. Stauffer, 2020. Temperature response and brine availability to heated boreholes in bedded saltVadose Zone Journal, 19(1):e20019.

Hansen, F.D., 2003. The Disturbed Rock Zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (62 p.) SAND2003–3407. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Holcomb, D.J., T. McDonald & R.D. Hardy, 2001. “Assessing the disturbed rock Zone (DRZ) at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in salt using ultrasonic waves” in DC Rocks 2001, The 38th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS). American Rock Mechanics Association. SAND2001-13055C.

Howarth, S.M. & T. Christian-Frear, 1997. Porosity, Single-Phase Permeability, and Capillary Pressure Data from Preliminary Laboratory Experiments on Selected Samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (3 vol.) SAND94–0472. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Hu, M. & J. Rutqvist, 2020. Finite volume modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes with application to brine migration in saltComputational Geosciences.

Jockwer, N. & K. Wieczorek, 2008. ADDIGAS: Advective and Diffusive Gas Transport in Rock Salt Formations Final Report. GRS-234, Cologne, Germany: Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS).

Johnson, P.J., S.M. Bourret, H. Boukhalfa, F.A. Caprouscio, G.A. Zyvoloski, D.J. Weaver, S. Otto, M.M. Mills, E.M. Matteo, K.L. Kuhlman, J. Rutqvist, Y. Wu & P.H. Stauffer, 2017. Test Plan Document for Thermal Testing in Salt, (45 p.) LA-UR-1730762. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Johnson, P.J., S. Otto, D.J. Weaver, B. Dozier, T.A. Miller, A.B. Jordan, N. Hayes-Rich & P.H. Stauffer, 2019. Heat-generating nuclear waste in salt: field testing and simulation, Vadose Zone Journal, 18(1):1-14.

Johnson, P.J., G.A. Zyvoloski & P.H. Stauffer, 2019. Impact of a porosity-dependent retention function on simulations of porous flowTransport in Porous Media, 127(1):211-232.

Jordan, A.B., H. Boukhalfa, F.A. Caporuscio; B.A. Robinson & P.H. Stauffer, 2015. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formationsEnvironmental Science & Technology, 49(11):6783-6790.

Knauth, L.P. & M.A. Beeunas, 1986. Isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in Permian halite with implications for the isotopic history of ocean water and the origin of saline formation waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50(3), 419-433.

Krause, W.B., 1983. Avery Island Brine Migration Test: Installation, Operation, Data Collection, and Analysis,(91 p.) ONWI-190(4). Rapid City, SD: RE/SPEC Inc.

Kuhlman, K.L., 2019. Processes in Salt Repositories, (41 p.) SAND2019-6441R. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L., 2014. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL, and SNL for the UFD Program, (105 p.) SAND2014–18217R. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L., C.M. Lopez, M.M. Mills, J.M. Rimsza & D.C. Sassani, 2018. Evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition in Salt (FY18), (83 p.) SAND2018–11355R. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L. & B. Malama, 2013. Brine Flow in Heated Geologic Salt (128 p.), SAND2013–1944. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K., M. Mills, R. Jayne, E. Matteo, C. Herrick, M. Nemer, J. Heath, Y. Xiong, C. Choens, P. Stauffer, H. Boukhalfa, E. Guiltinan, T. Rahn, D. Weaver, B. Dozier, S. Otto, J. Rutqvist, Y. Wu, M. Hu, S. Uhlemann & J. Wang, 2020. FY20 Update on Brine Availability Test in Salt, SAND2020-9034R, M2SF-20SN010303032, Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L., M.M. Mills, E.N. Matteo, 2017. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design, (96 p.) SAND2017–3179R. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L., S. Otto, P. Stauffer & Y. Wu, 2021. Brine Availability Test in Salt (BATS) Extended Plan for Experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SAND2021-3497R, M3SF-21SN010303055, Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Kuhlman, K.L. & S.D. Sevougian, 2013. Establishing the Technical Basis for Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt. SAND2013-6212P, FCRD-UFD-2013-000233. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Lai, C.-S., 1971. Fluid Flow through Rock Salt Under Various Stress States, (144 p.) PhD. Dissertation Michigan State University.

Lambert, S.J., 1992. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico, U.S.A.Applied Geochemistry, 7(6):513‑531.

Lappin, A.R., 1988. Summary of Site-Characterization Studies Conducted from 1983 through 1987 at WIPP, Southeastern New Mexico, SAND88-0157. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Magal, E., N. Weisbrod, A. Yakirevich & Y. Yechieli, 2008. The use of fluorescent dyes as tracers in highly saline groundwater. Journal of Hydrology, 358(1-2), 124-133.

McTigue, D.F., 1986. Thermoelastic response of fluid-saturated porous rockJournal of Geophysical Research, 91(B9):9533–9542.

McTigue, D.F., 1990. Flow to a heated borehole in porous, thermoelastic rock: analysisWater Resources Research, 26(8):1763–1774.

McTigue, D.F., 1993. Permeability and Hydraulic Diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plan Repository Salt Inferred from Small-Scale Brine Inflow Experiments, (91 p.) SAND92–1911. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Mills, M., Bauer, S.J., Stormont, J.C., 2018. Micromechanical processes in consolidated granular salt. Engineering Geology 239, pp. 206-213

Mills, M., K. Kuhlman, E. Matteo, C. Herrick, M. Nemer, J. Heath, Y. Xiong, C. Lopez, P. Stauffer, H. Boukhalfa, E. Guiltinan, T. Rahn, D. Weaver, B. Dozier, S. Otto, J. Rutqvist, Y. Wu, M. Hu & D. Crandall, 2019. Salt Heater Test (FY19), (61 p.) SAND2019–10240R. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Nowak, E.J. & D.F. McTigue, 1987. Interim Results of Brine Transport Studies in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), (86 p.) SAND87–0880. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Nowak, E.J., D.F. McTigue & R. Beraun, 1988. Brine Flow to WIPP Disposal Rooms: Data, Modeling and Assessment, (82 p.) SAND88–0112. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Olivella, S., S. Castagana, E.E. Alonso & A. Lloret, 2011. Porosity variations in saline media induced by temperature gradients: experimental evidences and modellingTransport in Porous Media, 90(3):763–777.

Pfeifle, T.W., N.S. Brodsky & D.E. Munson, 1998. Experimental Determination of the Relationship Between Permeability and Microfracture-Induced Damage in Bedded Salt, (10 p.) SAND98–0411C. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Popp, T., 2019. “Natural Closure of Salt Openings”, pp. 262–280 in Buchholz, S., E. Keffeler, K. Lipp, K. DeVries & F. Hansen [Eds], Proceedings of the 10th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation, (790 p.) SAND2019–9997R, Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Powers, D.W., 2017. Reference Stratigraphy Applied to Rock Mechanics Studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A Review – January 11, 2017, ERMS #567705. Carlsbad, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Rothfuchs, T., K. Wieczorek, H.K. Feddersen, G. Staupendahl, A.J. Coyle, H. Kalia & J. Eckert, 1988. Brine Migration Test Final Report, (317 p.) GSF-Bericht 6/88, Remlingen, F.R. Germany: Gesellschaft für Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH München (GSF).

Rutqvist, J., M. Hu, Y. Wu, L. Blanco-Martín & J. Birkholzer, 2018. Salt Coupled THMC Processes Research Activities at LBNL: FY2018 Progress. LBNL-2001170. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), 2020. Project Plan: Salt in situ Heater Test, SAND2020-1251R.

Skokan, C.K., M.C. Pfeifer, G.V. Keller, and H.T. Andersen, 1989. Studies of Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods for Characterizing Salt Properties at the WIPP Site, New Mexico. SAND87-7174, Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Stauffer, P.H., A.B. Jordan, D.J. Weaver, F.A. Caporuscio, J.A. Tencate, H. Boukhalfa, B.A. Robinson, D.C. Sassani, K.L. Kuhlman, E.L. Hardin, S.D. Sevougian, R.J. MacKinnon, Y. Wu, T.A. Daley, B.M. Freifield, P.J. Cook, J Rutqvist & J.T. Birkholzer, 2015. Test Proposal Document for Phased Field Testing in Salt, (104 p.) LA-UR-15-23154, Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Stauffer, P.H., E.J. Builtinan, S.M. Bourret & G.A. Zyvoloski, 2019. Salt Thermal Testing in Heated Boreholes: Experiments and Simulations. M2SF-19LA010303011, LA-UR-19-22729, Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Stickney, R.G. & L.L. Van Sambeek, 1984. Summary of the Avery Island Field Testing Program (75 p.), RSI-0225. Rapid City, SD: RE/SPEC Inc.

Stormont, J.C., 1987. Small-Scale Seal Performance Test Series “A” Thermal/Structural Data through the 180th Day, SAND87-0178. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Stormont, J.C., 1997. Conduct and interpretation of gas permeability measurements in rock salt. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 34(3–4):303.e1–303.e11.

Stormont, J.C. & K. Fuenkajorn, 1993. Dilation-Induced Permeability Changes in Rock Salt, (7 p.) SAND93–2670C, Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Stormont, J.C., C.L. Howard & J.J.K. Daemen, 1991. In Situ Measurements of Rock Salt Permeability Changes Due to Nearby Excavations, (81 p.) SAND90–3134. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Sutherland, H.J. & S. Cave, 1978. Gas Permeability of SENM Rock Salt, (42 p.) SAND78–2287. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Sweet, J.N. & J.E. McCreight, 1980. Thermal Properties Measurement on Rocksalt Samples from the Site of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (79 p.) SAND80–709. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Webb, S.W., 1992. Brine Inflow Sensitivity Study for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Boreholes: Results of One-Dimensional Simulations, (234 p.) SAND91–2296. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Xiong, Y, 2008. WIPP Procedure SP-20-4: Preparing Synthetic Brines for Geochemical Experiments. Carlsbad, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.