An approach to numerically modeling relativistic magnetrons, in which the electrons are represented with a relativistic fluid, is described. A principal effect in the operation of a magnetron is space-charge-limited (SCL) emission of electrons from the cathode. We have developed an approximate SCL emission boundary condition for the fluid electron model. This boundary condition prescribes the flux of electrons as a function of the normal component of the electric field on the boundary. We show the results of a benchmarking activity that applies the fluid SCL boundary condition to the one-dimensional Childâ€“Langmuir diode problem and a canonical two-dimensional diode problem. Simulation results for a two-dimensional A6 magnetron are then presented. Computed bunching of the electron cloud occurs and coincides with significant microwave power generation. Numerical convergence of the solution is considered. Sharp gradients in the solution quantities at the diocotron resonance, spanning an interval of three to four grid cells in the most well-resolved case, are present and likely affect convergence.

A semi-analytic fluid model has been developed for characterizing relativistic electron emission across a warm diode gap. Here we demonstrate the use of this model in (i) verifying multi-fluid codes in modeling compressible relativistic electron flows (the EMPIRE-Fluid code is used as an example; see also Ref. 1), (ii) elucidating key physics mechanisms characterizing the influence of compressibility and relativistic injection speed of the electron flow, and (iii) characterizing the regimes over which a fluid model recovers physically reasonable solutions.

This report describes the high-level accomplishments from the Plasma Science and Engineering Grand Challenge LDRD at Sandia National Laboratories. The Laboratory has a need to demonstrate predictive capabilities to model plasma phenomena in order to rapidly accelerate engineering development in several mission areas. The purpose of this Grand Challenge LDRD was to advance the fundamental models, methods, and algorithms along with supporting electrode science foundation to enable a revolutionary shift towards predictive plasma engineering design principles. This project integrated the SNL knowledge base in computer science, plasma physics, materials science, applied mathematics, and relevant application engineering to establish new cross-laboratory collaborations on these topics. As an initial exemplar, this project focused efforts on improving multi-scale modeling capabilities that are utilized to predict the electrical power delivery on large-scale pulsed power accelerators. Specifically, this LDRD was structured into three primary research thrusts that, when integrated, enable complex simulations of these devices: (1) the exploration of multi-scale models describing the desorption of contaminants from pulsed power electrodes, (2) the development of improved algorithms and code technologies to treat the multi-physics phenomena required to predict device performance, and (3) the creation of a rigorous verification and validation infrastructure to evaluate the codes and models across a range of challenge problems. These components were integrated into initial demonstrations of the largest simulations of multi-level vacuum power flow completed to-date, executed on the leading HPC computing machines available in the NNSA complex today. These preliminary studies indicate relevant pulsed power engineering design simulations can now be completed in (of order) several days, a significant improvement over pre-LDRD levels of performance.