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Digital Image Correlation for Performance Monitoring

Palaviccini, Miguel P.; Turner, Daniel Z.; Herzberg, MIchael H.

Evaluating the health of a mechanism requires more than just a binary evaluation of whether an operation was completed. It requires analyzing more comprehensive, full-field data. Health monitoring is a process of nondestructively identifying characteristics that indicate the fitness of an engineered component. In order to monitor unit health in a production setting, an automated test system must be created to capture the motion of mechanism parts in a real-time and non-intrusive manner. One way to accomplish this is by using high-speed video (HSV) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In this approach, individual frames of the video are analyzed to track the motion of mechanism components. The derived performance metrics allow for state-of-health monitoring and improved fidelity of mechanism modeling. The results are in-situ state-of-health identification and performance prediction. This paper introduces basic concepts of this test method, and discusses two main themes: the use of laser marking to add fiducial patterns to mechanism components, and new software developed to track objects with complex shapes, even as they move behind obstructions. Finally, the implementation of these tests into an automated tester is discussed.

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A nonlocal strain measure for DIC

Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series

Turner, Daniel Z.; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Reu, Phillip L.

It is well known that the derivative-based classical approach to strain is problematic when the displacement field is irregular, noisy, or discontinuous. Difficulties arise wherever the displacements are not differentiable. We present an alternative, nonlocal approach to calculating strain from digital image correlation (DIC) data that is well-defined and robust, even for the pathological cases that undermine the classical strain measure. This integral formulation for strain has no spatial derivatives and when the displacement field is smooth, the nonlocal strain and the classical strain are identical. We submit that this approach to computing strains from displacements will greatly improve the fidelity and efficacy of DIC for new application spaces previously untenable in the classical framework.

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PDE Constrained Optimization for Digital Image Correlation

Turner, Daniel Z.; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Garavito-Garzon, Carlos A.

The purpose of this report is to investigate a partial differential equation (PDE) constrained optimiza- tion approach for estimating the velocity field given image data for use within digital image correlation (DIC). We first introduce the problem and the standard DIC approach and then demonstrate why the DIC problem is ill-posed and introduce a standard regularization of the problem. We also demonstrate that the functional used is sensitive and robust via a sequence of experiments given by a stochastic model inducing the PDE constraint.

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Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

Littlewood, David J.; Silling, Stewart A.; Mitchell, John A.; Seleson, Pablo D.; Bond, Stephen D.; Parks, Michael L.; Turner, Daniel Z.; Burnett, Damon J.; Ostien, Jakob O.; Gunzburger, Max G.

Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for dramatically improved consistency at domain boundaries, and an enhancement to the meshfree discretization applied to peridynamic models that removes irregularities at the limit of the nonlocal length scale and dramatically improves conver- gence behavior. Finally, a novel approach for modeling ductile failure has been developed, moti- vated by the desire to apply coupled local-nonlocal models to a wide variety of materials, including ductile metals, which have received minimal attention in the peridynamic literature. Software im- plementation of the partial-stress coupling strategy, the position-aware peridynamic constitutive models, and the strategies for improving the convergence behavior of peridynamic models was completed within the Peridigm and Albany codes, developed at Sandia National Laboratories and made publicly available under the open-source 3-clause BSD license.

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Evaluation of various interpolants available in DICE

Turner, Daniel Z.; Reu, Phillip L.; Crozier, Paul C.

This report evaluates several interpolants implemented in the Digital Image Correlation Engine (DICe), an image correlation software package developed by Sandia. By interpolants we refer to the basis functions used to represent discrete pixel intensity data as a continuous signal. Interpolation is used to determine intensity values in an image at non - pixel locations. It is also used, in some cases, to evaluate the x and y gradients of the image intensities. Intensity gradients subsequently guide the optimization process. The goal of this report is to inform analysts as to the characteristics of each interpolant and provide guidance towards the best interpolant for a given dataset. This work also serves as an initial verification of each of the interpolants implemented.

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Inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using peridynamics

Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures

Turner, Daniel Z.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Parks, Michael L.

The following work presents an adjoint-based methodology for solving inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using state-based peridynamics. We show that the inner product involving the peridynamic operators is self-adjoint. The proposed method is illustrated for several numerical examples with constant and spatially varying material parameters as well as in the context of fractures. We also present a framework for obtaining material parameters by integrating digital image correlation (DIC) with inverse analysis. This framework is demonstrated by evaluating the bulk and shear moduli for a sample of nuclear graphite using digital photographs taken during the experiment. The resulting measured values correspond well with other results reported in the literature. Lastly, we show that this framework can be used to determine the load state given observed measurements of a crack opening. This type of analysis has many applications in characterizing subsurface stress-state conditions given fracture patterns in cores of geologic material.

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Results 26–50 of 60
Results 26–50 of 60