The paper presents a collection of results on continuous dependence for solutions to nonlocal problems under perturbations of data and system parameters. The integral operators appearing in the systems capture interactions via heterogeneous kernels that exhibit different types of weak singularities, space dependence, even regions of zero-interaction. Here, the stability results showcase explicit bounds involving the measure of the domain and of the interaction collar size, nonlocal Poincaré constant, and other parameters. In the nonlinear setting, the bounds quantify in different Lp norms the sensitivity of solutions under different nonlinearity profiles. The results are validated by numerical simulations showcasing discontinuous solutions, varying horizons of interactions, and symmetric and heterogeneous kernels.
Krylov subspace recycling is a powerful tool when solving a long series of large, sparse linear systems that change only slowly over time. In PDE constrained shape optimization, these series appear naturally, as typically hundreds or thousands of optimization steps are needed with only small changes in the geometry. In this setting, however, applying Krylov subspace recycling can be a difficult task. As the geometry evolves, in general, so does the finite element mesh defined on or representing this geometry, including the numbers of nodes and elements and element connectivity. This is especially the case if re-meshing techniques are used. As a result, the number of algebraic degrees of freedom in the system changes, and in general the linear system matrices resulting from the finite element discretization change size from one optimization step to the next. Changes in the mesh connectivity also lead to structural changes in the matrices. In the case of re-meshing, even if the geometry changes only a little, the corresponding mesh might differ substantially from the previous one. Obviously, this prevents any straightforward mapping of the approximate invariant subspace of the linear system matrix (the focus of recycling in this paper) from one optimization step to the next; similar problems arise for other selected subspaces. In this paper, we present an algorithm to map an approximate invariant subspace of the linear system matrix for the previous optimization step to an approximate invariant subspace of the linear system matrix for the current optimization step, for general meshes. This is achieved by exploiting the map from coefficient vectors to finite element functions on the mesh, combined with interpolation or approximation of functions on the finite element mesh. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach numerically with several proof of concept studies for a specific meshing technique.
We present a meshfree quadrature rule for compactly supported nonlocal integro-differential equations (IDEs) with radial kernels. We apply this rule to develop a meshfree discretization of a peridynamic solid mechanics model that requires no background mesh. Existing discretizations of peridynamic models have been shown to exhibit a lack of asymptotic compatibility to the corresponding linearly elastic local solution. By posing the quadrature rule as an equality constrained least squares problem, we obtain asymptotically compatible convergence by introducing polynomial reproduction constraints. Our approach naturally handles traction-free conditions, surface effects, and damage modeling for both static and dynamic problems. We demonstrate high-order convergence to the local theory by comparing to manufactured solutions and to cases with crack singularities for which an analytic solution is available. Finally, we verify the applicability of the approach to realistic problems by reproducing high-velocity impact results from the Kalthoff–Winkler experiments.
Most previous development of the peridynamic theory has assumed a Lagrangian formulation, in which the material model refers to an undeformed reference configuration. In the present work, an Eulerian form of material modeling is developed, in which bond forces depend only on the positions of material points in the deformed configuration. The formulation is consistent with the thermodynamic form of the peridynamic model and is derivable from a suitable expression for the free energy of a material. It is shown that the resulting formulation of peridynamic material models can be used to simulate strong shock waves and fluid response in which very large deformations make the Lagrangian form unsuitable. The Eulerian capability is demonstrated in numerical simulations of ejecta from a wavy free surface on a metal subjected to strong shock wave loading. The Eulerian and Lagrangian contributions to bond force can be combined in a single material model, allowing strength and fracture under tensile or shear loading to be modeled consistently with high compressive stresses. This capability is demonstrated in numerical simulation of bird strike against an aircraft, in which both tensile fracture and high pressure response are important.