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pyomo.dae: a modeling and automatic discretization framework for optimization with differential and algebraic equations

Mathematical Programming Computation

Nicholson, Bethany L.; Siirola, John D.; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Zavala, Victor M.; Biegler, Lorenz T.

We describe pyomo.dae, an open source Python-based modeling framework that enables high-level abstract specification of optimization problems with differential and algebraic equations. The pyomo.dae framework is integrated with the Pyomo open source algebraic modeling language, and is available at One key feature of pyomo.dae is that it does not restrict users to standard, predefined forms of differential equations, providing a high degree of modeling flexibility and the ability to express constraints that cannot be easily specified in other modeling frameworks. Other key features of pyomo.dae are the ability to specify optimization problems with high-order differential equations and partial differential equations, defined on restricted domain types, and the ability to automatically transform high-level abstract models into finite-dimensional algebraic problems that can be solved with off-the-shelf solvers. Moreover, pyomo.dae users can leverage existing capabilities of Pyomo to embed differential equation models within stochastic and integer programming models and mathematical programs with equilibrium constraint formulations. Collectively, these features enable the exploration of new modeling concepts, discretization schemes, and the benchmarking of state-of-the-art optimization solvers.

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Improving wind power prediction intervals using vendor-supplied probabilistic forecast information

IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting

Nitsche, Sabrina; Silva-Monroy, Cesar A.; Staid, Andrea S.; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Winner, Scott; Woodruff, David L.

We describe experiments concerning enhancing a simple, yet effective method to compute high-accuracy prediction intervals (PIs) for day-ahead wide area wind power forecasts. The resulting PIs are useful for operators and traders, to improve reliability, anticipate threats, and increase situational awareness. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. This work was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

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Constructing probabilistic scenarios for wide-area solar power generation

Solar Energy

Woodruff, David L.; Deride, Julio; Staid, Andrea; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Slevogt, Gerrit; Silva-Monroy, César

Optimizing thermal generation commitments and dispatch in the presence of high penetrations of renewable resources such as solar energy requires a characterization of their stochastic properties. In this paper, we describe novel methods designed to create day-ahead, wide-area probabilistic solar power scenarios based only on historical forecasts and associated observations of solar power production. Each scenario represents a possible trajectory for solar power in next-day operations with an associated probability computed by algorithms that use historical forecast errors. Scenarios are created by segmentation of historic data, fitting non-parametric error distributions using epi-splines, and then computing specific quantiles from these distributions. Additionally, we address the challenge of establishing an upper bound on solar power output. Our specific application driver is for use in stochastic variants of core power systems operations optimization problems, e.g., unit commitment and economic dispatch. These problems require as input a range of possible future realizations of renewables production. However, the utility of such probabilistic scenarios extends to other contexts, e.g., operator and trader situational awareness. We compare the performance of our approach to a recently proposed method based on quantile regression, and demonstrate that our method performs comparably to this approach in terms of two widely used methods for assessing the quality of probabilistic scenarios: the Energy score and the Variogram score.

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Strengthened SOCP Relaxations for ACOPF with McCormick Envelopes and Bounds Tightening

Computer Aided Chemical Engineering

Bynum, Michael L.; Castillo, Anya; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Laird, Carl D.

The solution of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) and Unit Commitment (UC) problems (i.e., determining generator schedules and set points that satisfy demands) is critical for efficient and reliable operation of the electricity grid. For computational efficiency, the alternating current OPF (ACOPF) problem is usually formulated with a linearized transmission model, often referred to as the DCOPF problem. However, these linear approximations do not guarantee global optimality or even feasibility for the true nonlinear alternating current (AC) system. Nonlinear AC power flow models can and should be used to improve model fidelity, but successful global solution of problems with these models requires the availability of strong relaxations of the AC optimal power flow constraints. In this paper, we use McCormick envelopes to strengthen the well-known second-order cone (SOC) relaxation of the ACOPF problem. With this improved relaxation, we can further include tight bounds on the voltages at the reference bus, and this paper demonstrates the effectiveness of this for improved bounds tightening. We present results on the optimality gap of both the base SOC relaxation and our Strengthened SOC (SSOC) relaxation for the National Information and Communications Technology Australia (NICTA) Energy System Test Case Archive (NESTA). For the cases where the SOC relaxation yields an optimality gap more than 0.1 %, the SSOC relaxation with bounds tightening further reduces the optimality gap by an average of 67 % and ultimately reduces the optimality gap to less than 0.1 % for 58 % of all the NESTA cases considered. Stronger relaxations enable more efficient global solution of the ACOPF problem and can improve computational efficiency of MINLP problems with AC power flow constraints, e.g., unit commitment.

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Generating short-term probabilistic wind power scenarios via nonparametric forecast error density estimators

Wind Energy

Staid, Andrea S.; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Wets, Roger J.B.; Woodruff, David L.

Forecasts of available wind power are critical in key electric power systems operations planning problems, including economic dispatch and unit commitment. Such forecasts are necessarily uncertain, limiting the reliability and cost-effectiveness of operations planning models based on a single deterministic or “point” forecast. A common approach to address this limitation involves the use of a number of probabilistic scenarios, each specifying a possible trajectory of wind power production, with associated probability. We present and analyze a novel method for generating probabilistic wind power scenarios, leveraging available historical information in the form of forecasted and corresponding observed wind power time series. We estimate nonparametric forecast error densities, specifically using epi-spline basis functions, allowing us to capture the skewed and nonparametric nature of error densities observed in real-world data. We then describe a method to generate probabilistic scenarios from these basis functions that allows users to control for the degree to which extreme errors are captured. We compare the performance of our approach to the current state-of-the-art considering publicly available data associated with the Bonneville Power Administration, analyzing aggregate production of a number of wind farms over a large geographic region. Finally, we discuss the advantages of our approach in the context of specific power systems operations planning problems: stochastic unit commitment and economic dispatch. Our methodology is embodied in the joint Sandia–University of California Davis Prescient software package for assessing and analyzing stochastic operations strategies.

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BBPH: Using progressive hedging within branch and bound to solve multi-stage stochastic mixed integer programs

Operations Research Letters

Barnett, Jason; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Woodruff, David L.

Progressive hedging, though an effective heuristic for solving stochastic mixed integer programs (SMIPs), is not guaranteed to converge in this case. Here, we describe BBPH, a branch and bound algorithm that uses PH at each node in the search tree such that, given sufficient time, it will always converge to a globally optimal solution. In addition to providing a theoretically convergent “wrapper” for PH applied to SMIPs, computational results demonstrate that for some difficult problem instances branch and bound can find improved solutions after exploring only a few nodes.

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Dynamic Multi-Sensor Multi-Mission Optimal Planning Tool

Valicka, Christopher G.; Rowe, Stephen R.; Zou, Simon Z.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Irelan, William R.; Pollard, Eric L.; Garcia, Deanna G.; Hackebeil, Gabriel A.; Staid, Andrea S.; Rintoul, Mark D.; Watson, Jean-Paul W.; Hart, William E.; Rathinam, Sivakumar R.; Ntaimo, Lewis N.

Remote sensing systems have firmly established a role in providing immense value to commercial industry, scientific exploration, and national security. Continued maturation of sensing technology has reduced the cost of deploying highly-capable sensors while at the same time increased reliance on the information these sensors can provide. The demand for time on these sensors is unlikely to diminish. Coordination of next-generation sensor systems, larger constellations of satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles, ground telescopes, etc. is prohibitively complex for existing heuristics- based scheduling techniques. The project was a two-year collaboration spanning multiple Sandia centers and included a partnership with Texas A&M University. We have developed algorithms and software for collection scheduling, remote sensor field-of-view pointing models, and bandwidth- constrained prioritization of sensor data. Our approach followed best practices from the operations research and computational geometry communities. These models provide several advantages over state of the art techniques. In particular, our approach is more flexible compared to heuristics that tightly couple models and solution techniques. First, our mixed-integer linear models afford a rig- orous analysis so that sensor planners can quantitatively describe a schedule relative to the best possible. Optimal or near-optimal schedules can be produced with commercial solvers in opera- tional run-times. These models can be modified and extended to incorporate different scheduling and resource constraints and objective function definitions. Further, we have extended these mod- els to proactively schedule sensors under weather and ad hoc collection uncertainty. This approach stands in contrast to existing deterministic schedulers which assume a single future weather or ad hoc collection scenario. The field-of-view pointing algorithm produces a mosaic with the fewest number of images required to fully cover a region of interest. The bandwidth-constrained al- gorithms find the highest priority information that can be transmitted. All of these are based on mixed-integer linear programs so that, in the future, collection scheduling, field-of-view, and band- width prioritization can be combined into a single problem. Experiments conducted using the de- veloped models, commercial solvers, and benchmark datasets have demonstrated that proactively scheduling against uncertainty regularly and significantly outperforms deterministic schedulers. Acknowledgement We would like to acknowledge John T. Feddema, Brian N. Post, John H. Ganter, and Swaroop Darbha for providing critical project stewardship and fruitful remote sensing utilization discus- sions. A special thanks to Mohamed S. Ebeida for his contributions to the development of the Maximal Poisson Sampling technique. We would also like to thank Kaarthik Sundar and Jianglei Qin for their significant scheduling algorithm and model development contributions to the project. The authors would like to acknowledge the Sandia LDRD program for their support of this work. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Cor- poration, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

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Results 26–50 of 124
Results 26–50 of 124