Kononov, Alina K.; Lee, Cheng-Wei L.; Pereira dos Santos, Tatiane P.; Robinson, Brian R.; Yao, Yifan Y.; Yao, Yi Y.; Andrade, Xavier A.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Constantinescu, Emil C.; Correa, Alfredo C.; Kanai, Yosuke K.; Modine, N.A.; Schleife, Andre S.
Due to a beneficial balance of computational cost and accuracy, real-time time-dependent density-functional theory has emerged as a promising first-principles framework to describe electron real-time dynamics. Here we discuss recent implementations around this approach, in particular in the context of complex, extended systems. Results include an analysis of the computational cost associated with numerical propagation and when using absorbing boundary conditions. We extensively explore the shortcomings for describing electron-electron scattering in real time and compare to many-body perturbation theory. Modern improvements of the description of exchange and correlation are reviewed. In this work, we specifically focus on the Qb@ll code, which we have mainly used for these types of simulations over the last years, and we conclude by pointing to further progress needed going forward.
The extreme sensitivity of 2D materials to defects and nanostructure requires precise imaging techniques to verify presence of desirable and absence of undesirable features in the atomic geometry. Helium-ion beams have emerged as a promising materials imaging tool, achieving up to 20 times higher resolution and 10 times larger depth-of-field than conventional or environmental scanning electron microscopes. Here, we offer first-principles theoretical insights to advance ion-beam imaging of atomically thin materials by performing real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations of single impacts of 10–200 keV light ions in free-standing graphene. Here we predict that detecting electrons emitted from the back of the material (the side from which the ion exits) would result in up to three times higher signal and up to five times higher contrast images, making 2D materials especially compelling targets for ion-beam microscopy. This predicted superiority of exit-side emission likely arises from anisotropic kinetic emission. The charge induced in the graphene equilibrates on a sub-fs time scale, leading to only slight disturbances in the carbon lattice that are unlikely to damage the atomic structure for any of the beam parameters investigated here.
Predictive design of REHEDS experiments with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations requires knowledge of material properties (e.g. equations of state (EOS), transport coefficients, and radiation physics). Interpreting experimental results requires accurate models of diagnostic observables (e.g. detailed emission, absorption, and scattering spectra). In conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), these material properties and observables can be pre-computed with relatively high accuracy and subsequently tabulated on simple temperature-density grids for fast look-up by simulations. When radiation and electron temperatures fall out of equilibrium, however, non-LTE effects can profoundly change material properties and diagnostic signatures. Accurately and efficiently incorporating these non-LTE effects has been a longstanding challenge for simulations. At present, most simulations include non-LTE effects by invoking highly simplified inline models. These inline non-LTE models are both much slower than table look-up and significantly less accurate than the detailed models used to populate LTE tables and diagnose experimental data through post-processing or inversion. Because inline non-LTE models are slow, designers avoid them whenever possible, which leads to known inaccuracies from using tabular LTE. Because inline models are simple, they are inconsistent with tabular data from detailed models, leading to ill-known inaccuracies, and they cannot generate detailed synthetic diagnostics suitable for direct comparisons with experimental data. This project addresses the challenge of generating and utilizing efficient, accurate, and consistent non-equilibrium material data along three complementary but relatively independent research lines. First, we have developed a relatively fast and accurate non-LTE average-atom model based on density functional theory (DFT) that provides a complete set of EOS, transport, and radiative data, and have rigorously tested it against more sophisticated first-principles multi-atom DFT models, including time-dependent DFT. Next, we have developed a tabular scheme and interpolation methods that compactly capture non-LTE effects for use in simulations and have implemented these tables in the GORGON magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code. Finally, we have developed post-processing tools that use detailed tabulated non-LTE data to directly predict experimental observables from simulation output.
Stochastic incorporation kinetics can be a limiting factor in the scalability of semiconductor fabrication technologies using atomic-precision techniques. While these technologies have recently been extended from donors to acceptors, the extent to which kinetics will impact single-acceptor incorporation has yet to be assessed. To identify the precursor molecule and dosing conditions that are promising for deterministic incorporation, we develop and apply an atomistic model for the single-acceptor incorporation rates of several recently demonstrated molecules: diborane (B2H6), boron trichloride (BCl3), and aluminum trichloride in both monomer (AlCl3) and dimer forms (Al2Cl6). While all three precursors can realize single-acceptor incorporation, we predict that diborane is unlikely to realize deterministic incorporation, boron trichloride can realize deterministic incorporation with modest heating (50 °C), and aluminum trichloride can realize deterministic incorporation at room temperature. We conclude that both boron and aluminum trichloride are promising precursors for atomic-precision single-acceptor applications, with the potential to enable the reliable production of large arrays of single-atom quantum devices.
Nuclear spins were among the first physical platforms to be considered for quantum information processing1,2, because of their exceptional quantum coherence3 and atomic-scale footprint. However, their full potential for quantum computing has not yet been realized, owing to the lack of methods with which to link nuclear qubits within a scalable device combined with multi-qubit operations with sufficient fidelity to sustain fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we demonstrate universal quantum logic operations using a pair of ion-implanted 31P donor nuclei in a silicon nanoelectronic device. A nuclear two-qubit controlled-Z gate is obtained by imparting a geometric phase to a shared electron spin4, and used to prepare entangled Bell states with fidelities up to 94.2(2.7)%. The quantum operations are precisely characterized using gate set tomography (GST)5, yielding one-qubit average gate fidelities up to 99.95(2)%, two-qubit average gate fidelity of 99.37(11)% and two-qubit preparation/measurement fidelities of 98.95(4)%. These three metrics indicate that nuclear spins in silicon are approaching the performance demanded in fault-tolerant quantum processors6. We then demonstrate entanglement between the two nuclei and the shared electron by producing a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger three-qubit state with 92.5(1.0)% fidelity. Because electron spin qubits in semiconductors can be further coupled to other electrons7–9 or physically shuttled across different locations10,11, these results establish a viable route for scalable quantum information processing using donor nuclear and electron spins.
Atomically precise ultradoping of silicon is possible with atomic resists, area-selective surface chemistry, and a limited set of hydride and halide precursor molecules, in a process known as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). It is desirable to expand this set of precursors to include dopants with organic functional groups and here we consider aluminium alkyls, to expand the applicability of APAM. We explore the impurity content and selectivity that results from using trimethyl aluminium and triethyl aluminium precursors on Si(001) to ultradope with aluminium through a hydrogen mask. Comparison of the methylated and ethylated precursors helps us understand the impact of hydrocarbon ligand selection on incorporation surface chemistry. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we assess the limitations of both classes of precursor and extract general principles relevant to each.
We demonstrate the ability to fabricate vertically stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) within SiGe nanowires with QD diameters down to 2 nm. These QDs are formed during high-temperature dry oxidation of Si/SiGe heterostructure pillars, during which Ge diffuses along the pillars' sidewalls and encapsulates the Si layers. Continued oxidation results in QDs with sizes dependent on oxidation time. The formation of a Ge-rich shell that encapsulates the Si QDs is observed, a configuration which is confirmed to be thermodynamically favorable with molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The type-II band alignment of the Si dot/SiGe pillar suggests that charge trapping on the Si QDs is possible, and electron energy loss spectra show that a conduction band offset of at least 200 meV is maintained for even the smallest Si QDs. Our approach is compatible with current Si-based manufacturing processes, offering a new avenue for realizing Si QD devices.
This project sought to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms underlying a newly observed enhanced germanium (Ge) diffusion process in silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductor nanostructures during thermal oxidation. Using a combination of oxidationdiffusion experiments, high resolution imaging, and theoretical modeling, a model for the enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was proposed. Additionally, a nanofabrication approach utilizing this enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was shown to be applicable to arbitrary 3D shapes, leading to the fabrication of stacked silicon quantum dots embedded in SiGe nanopillars. A new wet etch-based method for preparing 3D nanostructures for highresolution imaging free of obscuring material or damage was also developed. These results enable a new method for the controlled and scalable fabrication of on-chip silicon nanostructures with sub-10 nm dimensions needed for next generation microelectronics, including low energy electronics, quantum computing, sensors, and integrated photonics.
While it is likely practically a bad idea to shrink a transistor to the size of an atom, there is no arguing that it would be fantastic to have atomic-scale control over every aspect of a transistor – a kind of crystal ball to understand and evaluate new ideas. This project showed that it was possible to take a niche technique used to place dopants in silicon with atomic precision and apply it broadly to study opportunities and limitations in microelectronics. In addition, it laid the foundation to attaining atomic-scale control in semiconductor manufacturing more broadly.
A materials synthesis method that we call atomic-precision advanced manufacturing (APAM), which is the only known route to tailor silicon nanoelectronics with full 3D atomic precision, is making an impact as a powerful prototyping tool for quantum computing. Quantum computing schemes using atomic (31P) spin qubits are compelling for future scale-up owing to long dephasing times, one- and two-qubit gates nearing high-fidelity thresholds for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, and emerging routes to manufacturing via proven Si foundry techniques. Multiqubit devices are challenging to fabricate by conventional means owing to tight interqubit pitches forced by short-range spin interactions, and APAM offers the required (Å-scale) precision to systematically investigate solutions. However, applying APAM to fabricate circuitry with increasing numbers of qubits will require significant technique development. Here, we provide a tutorial on APAM techniques and materials and highlight its impacts in quantum computing research. Finally, we describe challenges on the path to multiqubit architectures and opportunities for APAM technique development. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
The adsorption of AlCl3 on Si(100) and the effect of annealing the AlCl3-dosed substrate were studied to reveal key surface processes for the development of atomic-precision, acceptor-doping techniques. This investigation was performed via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At room temperature, AlCl3 readily adsorbed to the Si substrate dimers and dissociated to form a variety of species. Annealing the AlCl3-dosed substrate at temperatures below 450 °C produced unique chlorinated aluminum chains (CACs) elongated along the Si(100) dimer row direction. An atomic model for the chains is proposed with supporting DFT calculations. Al was incorporated into the Si substrate upon annealing at 450 °C and above, and Cl desorption was observed for temperatures beyond 450 °C. Al-incorporated samples were encapsulated in Si and characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling to quantify the Al atom concentration, which was found to be in excess of 1020 cm-3 across a ∼2.7 nm-thick δ-doped region. The Al concentration achieved here and the processing parameters utilized promote AlCl3 as a viable gaseous precursor for novel acceptor-doped Si materials and devices for quantum computing.
We adapt the robust phase estimation algorithm to the evaluation of energy differences between two eigenstates using a quantum computer. This approach does not require controlled unitaries between auxiliary and system registers or even a single auxiliary qubit. As a proof of concept, we calculate the energies of the ground state and low-lying electronic excitations of a hydrogen molecule in a minimal basis on a cloud quantum computer. The denominative robustness of our approach is then quantified in terms of a high tolerance to coherent errors in the state preparation and measurement. Conceptually, we note that all quantum phase estimation algorithms ultimately evaluate eigenvalue differences.
We present an extension to the robust phase estimation protocol, which can identify incorrect results that would otherwise lie outside the expected statistical range. Robust phase estimation is increasingly a method of choice for applications such as estimating the effective process parameters of noisy hardware, but its robustness is dependent on the noise satisfying certain threshold assumptions. We provide consistency checks that can indicate when those thresholds have been violated, which can be difficult or impossible to test directly. We test these consistency checks for several common noise models, and identify two possible checks with high accuracy in locating the point in a robust phase estimation run at which further estimates should not be trusted. One of these checks may be chosen based on resource availability, or they can be used together in order to provide additional verification.