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Optimizing for KNL usage modes when data doesn’t fit in MCDRAM

ACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Butcher, Neil; Olivier, Stephen L.; Berry, Jonathan W.; Hammond, Simon D.; Kogge, Peter M.

Technologies such as Multi-Channel DRAM (MCDRAM) or High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) provide significantly more bandwidth than conventional memory. This trend has raised questions about how applications should manage data transfers between levels. This paper focuses on evaluating different usage modes of the MCDRAM in Intel Knights Landing (KNL) manycore processors. We evaluate these usage modes with a sorting kernel and a sorting-based streaming benchmark. We develop a performance model for the benchmark and use experimental evidence to demonstrate the correctness of the model. The model projects near-optimal numbers of copy threads for memory bandwidth bound computations. We demonstrate on KNL up to a 1.9X speedup for sort when the problem does not fit in MCDRAM over an OpenMP GNU sort that does not use MCDRAM.

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Fast linear algebra-based triangle counting with KokkosKernels

2017 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference, HPEC 2017

Wolf, Michael W.; Deveci, Mehmet D.; Berry, Jonathan W.; Hammond, Simon D.; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran R.

Triangle counting serves as a key building block for a set of important graph algorithms in network science. In this paper, we address the IEEE HPEC Static Graph Challenge problem of triangle counting, focusing on obtaining the best parallel performance on a single multicore node. Our implementation uses a linear algebra-based approach to triangle counting that has grown out of work related to our miniTri data analytics miniapplication [1] and our efforts to pose graph algorithms in the language of linear algebra. We leverage KokkosKernels to implement this approach efficiently on multicore architectures. Our performance results are competitive with the fastest known graph traversal-based approaches and are significantly faster than the Graph Challenge reference implementations, up to 670,000 times faster than the C++ reference and 10,000 times faster than the Python reference on a single Intel Haswell node.

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Two-level main memory co-design: Multi-threaded algorithmic primitives, analysis, and simulation

Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing

Bender, Michael A.; Berry, Jonathan W.; Hammond, Simon D.; Hemmert, Karl S.; McCauley, Samuel; Moore, Branden J.; Moseley, Benjamin; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Resnick, David R.; Rodrigues, Arun

A challenge in computer architecture is that processors often cannot be fed data from DRAM as fast as CPUs can consume it. Therefore, many applications are memory-bandwidth bound. With this motivation and the realization that traditional architectures (with all DRAM reachable only via bus) are insufficient to feed groups of modern processing units, vendors have introduced a variety of non-DDR 3D memory technologies (Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC),Wide I/O 2, High Bandwidth Memory (HBM)). These offer higher bandwidth and lower power by stacking DRAM chips on the processor or nearby on a silicon interposer. We will call these solutions “near-memory,” and if user-addressable, “scratchpad.” High-performance systems on the market now offer two levels of main memory: near-memory on package and traditional DRAM further away. In the near term we expect the latencies near-memory and DRAM to be similar. Thus, it is natural to think of near-memory as another module on the DRAM level of the memory hierarchy. Vendors are expected to offer modes in which the near memory is used as cache, but we believe that this will be inefficient. In this paper, we explore the design space for a user-controlled multi-level main memory. Our work identifies situations in which rewriting application kernels can provide significant performance gains when using near-memory. We present algorithms designed for two-level main memory, using divide-and-conquer to partition computations and streaming to exploit data locality. We consider algorithms for the fundamental application of sorting and for the data analysis kernel k-means. Our algorithms asymptotically reduce memory-block transfers under certain architectural parameter settings. We use and extend Sandia National Laboratories’ SST simulation capability to demonstrate the relationship between increased bandwidth and improved algorithmic performance. Memory access counts from simulations corroborate predicted performance improvements for our sorting algorithm. In contrast, the k-means algorithm is generally CPU bound and does not improve when using near-memory except under extreme conditions. These conditions require large instances that rule out SST simulation, but we demonstrate improvements by running on a customized machine with high and low bandwidth memory. These case studies in co-design serve as positive and cautionary templates, respectively, for the major task of optimizing the computational kernels of many fundamental applications for two-level main memory systems.

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Hierarchical Task-Data Parallelism using Kokkos and Qthreads

Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen L.; Berry, Jonathan W.; Mackey, Greg; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran R.; Wolf, Michael W.; Kim, Kyungjoo K.; Stelle, George

This report describes a new capability for hierarchical task-data parallelism using Sandia's Kokkos and Qthreads, and evaluation of this capability with sparse matrix Cholesky factor- ization and social network triangle enumeration mini-applications. Hierarchical task-data parallelism consists of a collection of tasks with executes-after dependences where each task contains data parallel operations performed on a team of hardware threads. The collection of tasks and dependences form a directed acyclic graph of tasks - a task DAG . Major chal- lenges of this research and development effort include: portability and performance across multicore CPU; manycore Intel Xeon Phi, and NVIDIA GPU architectures; scalability with respect to hardware concurrency and size of the task DAG; and usability of the application programmer interface (API).

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Anti-persistence on persistent storage: History-independent sparse tables and dictionaries

Proceedings of the ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems

Bender, Michael A.; Berry, Jonathan W.; Johnson, Rob; Kroeger, Thomas M.; McCauley, Samuel; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Simon, Bertrand; Singh, Shikha; Zage, David J.

We present history-independent alternatives to a B-tree, the primary indexing data structure used in databases. A data structure is history independent (HI) if it is impossible to deduce any information by examining the bit representation of the data structure that is not already available through the API. We show how to build a history-independent cache-oblivious B-tree and a history-independent external-memory skip list. One of the main contributions is a data structure we build on the way - a history-independent packed-memory array (PMA). The PMA supports efficient range queries, one of the most important operations for answering database queries. Our HI PMA matches the asymptotic bounds of prior non-HI packed-memory arrays and sparse tables. Specifically, a PMA maintains a dynamic set of elements in sorted order in a linearsized array. Inserts and deletes take an amortized O(log2 N) element moves with high probability. Simple experiments with our implementation of HI PMAs corroborate our theoretical analysis. Comparisons to regular PMAs give preliminary indications that the practical cost of adding history-independence is not too large. Our HI cache-oblivious B-tree bounds match those of prior non-HI cache-oblivious B-trees. Searches take O(logB N) I/Os; inserts and deletes take O(log2N/B + logB N) amortized I/Os with high probability; and range queries returning k elements take O(logB N + k/B) I/Os. Our HI external-memory skip list achieves optimal bounds with high probability, analogous to in-memory skip lists: O(logB N) I/Os for point queries and amortized O(logB N) I/Os for inserts/deletes. Range queries returning k elements run in O(logB N + k/B) I/Os. In contrast, the best possible high-probability bounds for inserting into the folklore B-skip list, which promotes elements with probability 1/B, is just Θ(log N) I/Os. This is no better than the bounds one gets from running an inmemory skip list in external memory.

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Results 26–50 of 119
Results 26–50 of 119