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Development of Single Photon Sources in GaN

Mounce, Andrew M.; Wang, George W.; Schultz, Peter A.; Titze, Michael T.; Campbell, DeAnna M.; Lu, Ping L.; Henshaw, Jacob D.

The recent discovery of bright, room-temperature, single photon emitters in GaN leads to an appealing alternative to diamond best single photon emitters given the widespread use and technological maturity of III-nitrides for optoelectronics (e.g. blue LEDs, lasers) and high-speed, high-power electronics. This discovery opens the door to on-chip and on-demand single photon sources integrated with detectors and electronics. Currently, little is known about the underlying defect structure nor is there a sense of how such an emitter might be controllably created. A detailed understanding of the origin of the SPEs in GaN and a path to deterministically introduce them is required. In this project, we develop new experimental capabilities to then investigate single photon emission from GaN nanowires and both GAN and AlN wafers. We ion implant our wafers with the ion implanted with our focused ion beam nanoimplantation capabilities at Sandia, to go beyond typical broad beam implantation and create single photon emitting defects with nanometer precision. We've created light emitting sources using Li+ and He+, but single photon emission has yet to be demonstrated. In parallel, we calculate the energy levels of defects and transition metal substitutions in GaN to gain a better understanding of the sources of single photon emission in GaN and AlN. The combined experimental and theoretical capabilities developed throughout this project will enable further investigation into the origins of single photon emission from defects in GaN, AlN, and other wide bandgap semiconductors.

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Selective amorphization of SiGe in Si/SiGe nanostructures via high energy Si+ implant

Journal of Applied Physics

Turner, Emily M.; Campbell, Quinn C.; Avci, Ibrahim A.; Weber, William J.; Lu, Ping L.; Wang, George T.; Jones, Kevin S.

The selective amorphization of SiGe in Si/SiGe nanostructures via a 1 MeV Si + implant was investigated, resulting in single-crystal Si nanowires (NWs) and quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated in amorphous SiGe fins and pillars, respectively. The Si NWs and QDs are formed during high-temperature dry oxidation of single-crystal Si/SiGe heterostructure fins and pillars, during which Ge diffuses along the nanostructure sidewalls and encapsulates the Si layers. The fins and pillars were then subjected to a 3 × 10 15  ions/cm 2 1 MeV Si + implant, resulting in the amorphization of SiGe, while leaving the encapsulated Si crystalline for larger, 65-nm wide NWs and QDs. Interestingly, the 26-nm diameter Si QDs amorphize, while the 28-nm wide NWs remain crystalline during the same high energy ion implant. This result suggests that the Si/SiGe pillars have a lower threshold for Si-induced amorphization compared to their Si/SiGe fin counterparts. However, Monte Carlo simulations of ion implantation into the Si/SiGe nanostructures reveal similar predicted levels of displacements per cm 3 . Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the total stress magnitude in Si QDs encapsulated in crystalline SiGe is higher than the total stress magnitude in Si NWs, which may lead to greater crystalline instability in the QDs during ion implant. The potential lower amorphization threshold of QDs compared to NWs is of special importance to applications that require robust QD devices in a variety of radiation environments.

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Atomic step disorder on polycrystalline surfaces leads to spatially inhomogeneous work functions

Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A

Bussmann, Ezra B.; smith, sean w.; Scrymgeour, David S.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Lu, Ping L.; Dickens, Sara D.; Michael, Joseph R.; Ohta, Taisuke O.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clem, Paul G.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Moore, Christopher M.

Structural disorder causes materials’ surface electronic properties, e.g., work function ([Formula: see text]), to vary spatially, yet it is challenging to prove exact causal relationships to underlying ensemble disorder, e.g., roughness or granularity. For polycrystalline Pt, nanoscale resolution photoemission threshold mapping reveals a spatially varying [Formula: see text] eV over a distribution of (111) vicinal grain surfaces prepared by sputter deposition and annealing. With regard to field emission and related phenomena, e.g., vacuum arc initiation, a salient feature of the [Formula: see text] distribution is that it is skewed with a long tail to values down to 5.4 eV, i.e., far below the mean, which is exponentially impactful to field emission via the Fowler–Nordheim relation. We show that the [Formula: see text] spatial variation and distribution can be explained by ensemble variations of granular tilts and surface slopes via a Smoluchowski smoothing model wherein local [Formula: see text] variations result from spatially varying densities of electric dipole moments, intrinsic to atomic steps, that locally modify [Formula: see text]. Atomic step-terrace structure is confirmed with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at several locations on our surfaces, and prior works showed STM evidence for atomic step dipoles at various metal surfaces. From our model, we find an atomic step edge dipole [Formula: see text] D/edge atom, which is comparable to values reported in studies that utilized other methods and materials. Our results elucidate a connection between macroscopic [Formula: see text] and the nanostructure that may contribute to the spread of reported [Formula: see text] for Pt and other surfaces and may be useful toward more complete descriptions of polycrystalline metals in the models of field emission and other related vacuum electronics phenomena, e.g., arc initiation.

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Controlled Formation of Stacked Si Quantum Dots in Vertical SiGe Nanowires

Nano Letters

Turner, Emily M.; Campbell, Quinn C.; Pizarro, Joaquín; Yang, Hongbin; Sapkota, Keshab R.; Lu, Ping L.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Wang, George T.; Jones, Kevin S.

We demonstrate the ability to fabricate vertically stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) within SiGe nanowires with QD diameters down to 2 nm. These QDs are formed during high-temperature dry oxidation of Si/SiGe heterostructure pillars, during which Ge diffuses along the pillars' sidewalls and encapsulates the Si layers. Continued oxidation results in QDs with sizes dependent on oxidation time. The formation of a Ge-rich shell that encapsulates the Si QDs is observed, a configuration which is confirmed to be thermodynamically favorable with molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The type-II band alignment of the Si dot/SiGe pillar suggests that charge trapping on the Si QDs is possible, and electron energy loss spectra show that a conduction band offset of at least 200 meV is maintained for even the smallest Si QDs. Our approach is compatible with current Si-based manufacturing processes, offering a new avenue for realizing Si QD devices.

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Modeling and Assessment of Atomic Precision Advanced Manufacturing (APAM) Enabled Vertical Tunneling Field Effect Transistor

International Conference on Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices, SISPAD

Gao, Xujiao G.; Mendez Granado, Juan P.; Lu, Tzu-Ming L.; Anderson, Evan M.; Campbell, DeAnna M.; Ivie, Jeffrey A.; Schmucker, Scott W.; Grine, Albert D.; Lu, Ping L.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Arghavani, Reza A.; Misra, Shashank M.

The atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM) enabled vertical tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) presents a new opportunity in microelectronics thanks to the use of ultra-high doping and atomically abrupt doping profiles. We present modeling and assessment of the APAM TFET using TCAD Charon simulation. First, we show, through a combination of simulation and experiment, that we can achieve good control of the gated channel on top of a phosphorus layer made using APAM, an essential part of the APAM TFET. Then, we present simulation results of a preliminary APAM TFET that predict transistor-like current-voltage response despite low device performance caused by using large geometry dimensions. Future device simulations will be needed to optimize geometry and doping to guide device design for achieving superior device performance.

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A New Route to Quantum-Scale Structures through a Novel Enhanced Germanium Diffusion Mechanism

Wang, George T.; Lu, Ping L.; Sapkota, Keshab R.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Campbell, Quinn C.; Schultz, Peter A.; Jones, Kevin S.; Turner, Emily M.; Sharrock, Chappel J.; Law, Mark E.; Yang, Hongbin Y.

This project sought to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms underlying a newly observed enhanced germanium (Ge) diffusion process in silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductor nanostructures during thermal oxidation. Using a combination of oxidationdiffusion experiments, high resolution imaging, and theoretical modeling, a model for the enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was proposed. Additionally, a nanofabrication approach utilizing this enhanced Ge diffusion mechanism was shown to be applicable to arbitrary 3D shapes, leading to the fabrication of stacked silicon quantum dots embedded in SiGe nanopillars. A new wet etch-based method for preparing 3D nanostructures for highresolution imaging free of obscuring material or damage was also developed. These results enable a new method for the controlled and scalable fabrication of on-chip silicon nanostructures with sub-10 nm dimensions needed for next generation microelectronics, including low energy electronics, quantum computing, sensors, and integrated photonics.

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Assessing atomically thin delta-doping of silicon using mid-infrared ellipsometry

Journal of Materials Research

Katzenmeyer, Aaron M.; Luk, Ting S.; Bussmann, Ezra B.; Young, Steve M.; Anderson, Evan M.; Marshall, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Kotula, Paul G.; Lu, Ping L.; Campbell, DeAnna M.; Lu, Tzu-Ming L.; Liu, Peter Q.; Ward, Daniel R.; Misra, Shashank M.

Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.

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Low thermal budget high-k/metal surface gate for buried donor-based devices

JPhys Materials

Anderson, Evan M.; Campbell, De A.; Maurer, Leon N.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Marshall, Michael T.; Lu, Tzu-Ming L.; Lu, Ping L.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Schmucker, Scott W.; Ward, Daniel R.; Misra, Shashank M.

Atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM) offers creation of donor devices in an atomically thin layer doped beyond the solid solubility limit, enabling unique device physics. This presents an opportunity to use APAM as a pathfinding platform to investigate digital electronics at the atomic limit. Scaling to smaller transistors is increasingly difficult and expensive, necessitating the investigation of alternative fabrication paths that extend to the atomic scale. APAM donor devices can be created using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). However, these devices are not currently compatible with industry standard fabrication processes. There exists a tradeoff between low thermal budget (LT) processes to limit dopant diffusion and high thermal budget (HT) processes to grow defect-free layers of epitaxial Si and gate oxide. To this end, we have developed an LT epitaxial Si cap and LT deposited Al2O3 gate oxide integrated with an atomically precise single-electron transistor (SET) that we use as an electrometer to characterize the quality of the gate stack. The surface-gated SET exhibits the expected Coulomb blockade behavior. However, the gate’s leverage over the SET is limited by defects in the layers above the SET, including interfaces between the Si and oxide, and structural and chemical defects in the Si cap. We propose a more sophisticated gate stack and process flow that is predicted to improve performance in future atomic precision devices.

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New nanoscale toughening mechanisms mitigate embrittlement in binary nanocrystalline alloys


Heckman, Nathan H.; Foiles, Stephen M.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Chandross, M.; Barr, Christopher M.; Argibay, Nicolas A.; Hattar, Khalid M.; Lu, Ping L.; Adams, David P.; Boyce, Brad B.

Nanocrystalline metals offer significant improvements in structural performance over conventional alloys. However, their performance is limited by grain boundary instability and limited ductility. Solute segregation has been proposed as a stabilization mechanism, however the solute atoms can embrittle grain boundaries and further degrade the toughness. In the present study, we confirm the embrittling effect of solute segregation in Pt-Au alloys. However, more importantly, we show that inhomogeneous chemical segregation to the grain boundary can lead to a new toughening mechanism termed compositional crack arrest. Energy dissipation is facilitated by the formation of nanocrack networks formed when cracks arrested at regions of the grain boundaries that were starved in the embrittling element. This mechanism, in concert with triple junction crack arrest, provides pathways to optimize both thermal stability and energy dissipation. A combination of in situ tensile deformation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations elucidate both the embrittling and toughening processes that can occur as a function of solute content.

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18 Results
18 Results