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ATHENA: Analytical Tool for Heterogeneous Neuromorphic Architectures

Cardwell, Suma G.; Plagge, Mark P.; Hughes, Clayton H.; Rothganger, Fredrick R.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Awad, Amro A.; mcfarland, john m.; Parker, Luke G.

The ASC program seeks to use machine learning to improve efficiencies in its stockpile stewardship mission. Moreover, there is a growing market for technologies dedicated to accelerating AI workloads. Many of these emerging architectures promise to provide savings in energy efficiency, area, and latency when compared to traditional CPUs for these types of applications — neuromorphic analog and digital technologies provide both low-power and configurable acceleration of challenging artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. If designed into a heterogeneous system with other accelerators and conventional compute nodes, these technologies have the potential to augment the capabilities of traditional High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms [5]. This expanded computation space requires not only a new approach to physics simulation, but the ability to evaluate and analyze next-generation architectures specialized for AI/ML workloads in both traditional HPC and embedded ND applications. Developing this capability will enable ASC to understand how this hardware performs in both HPC and ND environments, improve our ability to port our applications, guide the development of computing hardware, and inform vendor interactions, leading them toward solutions that address ASC’s unique requirements.

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Modeling Analog Tile-Based Accelerators Using SST

Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Plagge, Mark P.; Rothganger, Fredrick R.; Cardwell, Suma G.; Hughes, Clayton H.

Analog computing has been widely proposed to improve the energy efficiency of multiple important workloads including neural network operations, and other linear algebra kernels. To properly evaluate analog computing and explore more complex workloads such as systems consisting of multiple analog data paths, system level simulations are required. Moreover, prior work on system architectures for analog computing often rely on custom simulators creating signficant additional design effort and complicating comparisons between different systems. To remedy these issues, this report describes the design and implementation of a flexible tile-based analog accelerator element for the Structural Simulation Toolkit (SST). The element focuses on heavily on the tile controller—an often neglected aspect of prior work—that is sufficiently versatile to simulate a wide range of different tile operations including neural network layers, signal processing kernels, and generic linear algebra operations without major constraints. The tile model also interoperates with existing SST memory and network models to reduce the overall development load and enable future simulation of heterogeneous systems with both conventional digital logic and analog compute tiles. Finally, both the tile and array models are designed to easily support future extensions as new analog operations and applications that can benefit from analog computing are developed.

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CrossSim Inference Manual v2.0

Xiao, Tianyao X.; Bennett, Christopher H.; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Agarwal, Sapan A.

Neural networks are largely based on matrix computations. During forward inference, the most heavily used compute kernel is the matrix-vector multiplication (MVM): $W \vec{x} $. Inference is a first frontier for the deployment of next-generation hardware for neural network applications, as it is more readily deployed in edge devices, such as mobile devices or embedded processors with size, weight, and power constraints. Inference is also easier to implement in analog systems than training, which has more stringent device requirements. The main processing kernel used during inference is the MVM.

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An Accurate, Error-Tolerant, and Energy-Efficient Neural Network Inference Engine Based on SONOS Analog Memory

IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers

Xiao, T.P.; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Bennett, Christopher H.; Agrawal, Vineet; Saxena, Prashant; Prabhakar, Venkatraman; Ramkumar, Krishnaswamy; Medu, Harsha; Raghavan, Vijay; Chettuvetty, Ramesh; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Marinella, Matthew J.

We demonstrate SONOS (silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon) analog memory arrays that are optimized for neural network inference. The devices are fabricated in a 40nm process and operated in the subthreshold regime for in-memory matrix multiplication. Subthreshold operation enables low conductances to be implemented with low error, which matches the typical weight distribution of neural networks, which is heavily skewed toward near-zero values. This leads to high accuracy in the presence of programming errors and process variations. We simulate the end-To-end neural network inference accuracy, accounting for the measured programming error, read noise, and retention loss in a fabricated SONOS array. Evaluated on the ImageNet dataset using ResNet50, the accuracy using a SONOS system is within 2.16% of floating-point accuracy without any retraining. The unique error properties and high On/Off ratio of the SONOS device allow scaling to large arrays without bit slicing, and enable an inference architecture that achieves 20 TOPS/W on ResNet50, a > 10× gain in energy efficiency over state-of-The-Art digital and analog inference accelerators.

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Analysis and mitigation of parasitic resistance effects for analog in-memory neural network acceleration

Semiconductor Science and Technology

Xiao, T.P.; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Rohan, Jacob N.; Bennett, Christopher H.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Marinella, Matthew J.

To support the increasing demands for efficient deep neural network processing, accelerators based on analog in-memory computation of matrix multiplication have recently gained significant attention for reducing the energy of neural network inference. However, analog processing within memory arrays must contend with the issue of parasitic voltage drops across the metal interconnects, which distort the results of the computation and limit the array size. This work analyzes how parasitic resistance affects the end-to-end inference accuracy of state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks, and comprehensively studies how various design decisions at the device, circuit, architecture, and algorithm levels affect the system's sensitivity to parasitic resistance effects. A set of guidelines are provided for how to design analog accelerator hardware that is intrinsically robust to parasitic resistance, without any explicit compensation or re-training of the network parameters.

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Multiscale System Modeling of Single-Event-Induced Faults in Advanced Node Processors

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

Cannon, Matthew J.; Rodrigues, Arun; Black, Dolores A.; Black, Jeff; Bustamante, Luis G.; Breeding, Matthew; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Skoufis, Micahel; Quinn, Heather; Clark, Lawrence T.; Brunhaver, John S.; Barnaby, Hugh; McLain, Michael L.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Marinella, Matthew J.

Integration-technology feature shrink increases computing-system susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE). While modeling SEE faults will be critical, an integrated processor's scope makes physically correct modeling computationally intractable. Without useful models, presilicon evaluation of fault-tolerance approaches becomes impossible. To incorporate accurate transistor-level effects at a system scope, we present a multiscale simulation framework. Charge collection at the 1) device level determines 2) circuit-level transient duration and state-upset likelihood. Circuit effects, in turn, impact 3) register-transfer-level architecture-state corruption visible at 4) the system level. Thus, the physically accurate effects of SEEs in large-scale systems, executed on a high-performance computing (HPC) simulator, could be used to drive cross-layer radiation hardening by design. We demonstrate the capabilities of this model with two case studies. First, we determine a D flip-flop's sensitivity at the transistor level on 14-nm FinFet technology, validating the model against published cross sections. Second, we track and estimate faults in a microprocessor without interlocked pipelined stages (MIPS) processor for Adams 90% worst case environment in an isotropic space environment.

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An Analog Preconditioner for Solving Linear Systems [Slides]

Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Wong, Ryan; Xiao, Tianyao X.; Rohan, Jacob N.; Boman, Erik G.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Ipek, Engin I.

This presentation concludes in situ computation enables new approaches to linear algebra problems which can be both more effective and more efficient as compared to conventional digital systems. Preconditioning is well-suited to analog computation due to the tolerance for approximate solutions. When combined with prior work on in situ MVM for scientific computing, analog preconditioning can enable significant speedups for important linear algebra applications.

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An Analog Preconditioner for Solving Linear Systems

Proceedings - International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture

Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Wong, Ryan; Xiao, T.P.; Bennett, Christopher H.; Rohan, Jacob N.; Boman, Erik G.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Ipek, Engin

Over the past decade as Moore's Law has slowed, the need for new forms of computation that can provide sustainable performance improvements has risen. A new method, called in situ computing, has shown great potential to accelerate matrix vector multiplication (MVM), an important kernel for a diverse range of applications from neural networks to scientific computing. Existing in situ accelerators for scientific computing, however, have a significant limitation: These accelerators provide no acceleration for preconditioning-A key bottleneck in linear solvers and in scientific computing workflows. This paper enables in situ acceleration for state-of-The-Art linear solvers by demonstrating how to use a new in situ matrix inversion accelerator for analog preconditioning. As existing techniques that enable high precision and scalability for in situ MVM are inapplicable to in situ matrix inversion, new techniques to compensate for circuit non-idealities are proposed. Additionally, a new approach to bit slicing that enables splitting operands across multiple devices without external digital logic is proposed. For scalability, this paper demonstrates how in situ matrix inversion kernels can work in tandem with existing domain decomposition techniques to accelerate the solutions of arbitrarily large linear systems. The analog kernel can be directly integrated into existing preconditioning workflows, leveraging several well-optimized numerical linear algebra tools to improve the behavior of the circuit. The result is an analog preconditioner that is more effective (up to 50% fewer iterations) than the widely used incomplete LU factorization preconditioner, ILU(0), while also reducing the energy and execution time of each approximate solve operation by 1025x and 105x respectively.

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Analog architectures for neural network acceleration based on non-volatile memory

Applied Physics Reviews

Xiao, T.P.; Bennett, Christopher H.; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Agarwal, Sapan A.; Marinella, Matthew J.

Analog hardware accelerators, which perform computation within a dense memory array, have the potential to overcome the major bottlenecks faced by digital hardware for data-heavy workloads such as deep learning. Exploiting the intrinsic computational advantages of memory arrays, however, has proven to be challenging principally due to the overhead imposed by the peripheral circuitry and due to the non-ideal properties of memory devices that play the role of the synapse. We review the existing implementations of these accelerators for deep supervised learning, organizing our discussion around the different levels of the accelerator design hierarchy, with an emphasis on circuits and architecture. We explore and consolidate the various approaches that have been proposed to address the critical challenges faced by analog accelerators, for both neural network inference and training, and highlight the key design trade-offs underlying these techniques.

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Adapting in Situ Accelerators for Sparsity with Granular Matrix Reordering

IEEE Computer Architecture Letters

Mikhailenko, Darya; Nakamoto, Yujin; Feinberg, Benjamin F.; Ipek, Engin

Neural network (NN) inference is an essential part of modern systems and is found at the heart of numerous applications ranging from image recognition to natural language processing. In situ NN accelerators can efficiently perform NN inference using resistive crossbars, which makes them a promising solution to the data movement challenges faced by conventional architectures. Although such accelerators demonstrate significant potential for dense NNs, they often do not benefit from sparse NNs, which contain relatively few non-zero weights. Processing sparse NNs on in situ accelerators results in wasted energy to charge the entire crossbar where most elements are zeros. To address this limitation, this letter proposes Granular Matrix Reordering (GMR): a preprocessing technique that enables an energy-efficient computation of sparse NNs on in situ accelerators. GMR reorders the rows and columns of sparse weight matrices to maximize the crossbars' utilization and minimize the total number of crossbars needed to be charged. The reordering process does not rely on sparsity patterns and incurs no accuracy loss. Overall, GMR achieves an average of 28 percent and up to 34 percent reduction in energy consumption over seven pruned NNs across four different pruning methods and network architectures.

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Results 1–25 of 26
Results 1–25 of 26