## Climate Changes in the Arctic and The Challenge to USCG Operations

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Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

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This report describes a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the VIPAR code (Vortex Inflation PARachute code) is described herein. This version contains several first order algorithms that we are in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator that can be used to produce a large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an ExodusII database file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two ExodusII files that can be post processed and viewed using software such as EnSight{trademark}.

16th AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference and Seminar

In this paper the current status of an unsteady 3D parachute simulation code that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) is discussed. The Vortex Inflation PARachute code (VIPAR) that embodies this effort is being developed to perform complete numerical simulations of ribbon parachute deployment, inflation, and steady descent utilizing several thousand processors on one of the DOE "teraFLOP" computers. First generation working serial and parallel versions of the uncoupled fluids code that simulate unsteady 3D incompressible flows around bluff bodies with complex geometries have been developed. Preliminary results from the uncoupled fluids code along with the fluid-structure coupling strategy are presented herein.

In this paper the development of a gridless method to solve compressible flow problems is discussed. The governing evolution equations for velocity divergence {delta}, vorticity {omega}, density {rho}, and temperature T are obtained from the primitive variable Navier-Stokes equations. Simplifications to the equations resulting from assumptions of ideal gas behavior, adiabatic flow, and/or constant viscosity coefficients are given. A general solution technique is outlined with some discussion regarding alternative approaches. Two radial flow model problems are considered which are solved using both a finite difference method and a compressible particle method. The first of these is an isentropic inviscid 1D spherical flow which initially has a Gaussian temperature distribution with zero velocity everywhere. The second problem is an isentropic inviscid 2D radial flow which has an initial vorticity distribution with constant temperature everywhere. Results from the finite difference and compressible particle calculations are compared in each case. A summary of the results obtained herein is given along with recommendations for continuing the work.

A numerical flow model is developed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow past immersed, elastically supported tube arrays. This work is motivated by the objective of predicting forces and motion associated with both deep-water drilling and production risers in the oil industry. This work has other engineering applications including simulation of flow past tubular heat exchangers or submarine-towed sensor arrays and the flow about parachute ribbons. In the present work, a vortex method is used for solving the unsteady flow field. This method demonstrates inherent advantages over more conventional grid-based computational fluid dynamics. The vortex method is non-iterative, does not require artificial viscosity for stability, displays minimal numerical diffusion, can easily treat moving boundaries, and allows a greatly reduced computational domain since vorticity occupies only a small fraction of the fluid volume. A gridless approach is used in the flow sufficiently distant from surfaces. A Lagrangian remap scheme is used near surfaces to calculate diffusion and convection of vorticity. A fast multipole technique is utilized for efficient calculation of velocity from the vorticity field. The ability of the method to correctly predict lift and drag forces on simple stationary geometries over a broad range of Reynolds numbers is presented.

Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B

A gridless technique for the solution of the integral form of the radiative heat flux equation for emitting and absorbing media is presented. Treatment of non-uniform absorptivity and gray boundaries is included. As part of this work, the authors have developed fast multipole techniques for extracting radiative heat flux quantities from the temperature fields of one-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries. Example calculations include those for one-dimensional radiative heat transfer through multiple flame sheets, a three-dimensional enclosure with black walls, and an axisymmetric enclosure with black walls.

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14 Results