## Benchmarking Near-‐term Adiabatic Quantum Computation

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We lay the foundation for a benchmarking methodology for assessing current and future quantum computers. We pose and begin addressing fundamental questions about how to fairly compare computational devices at vastly different stages of technological maturity. We critically evaluate and offer our own contributions to current quantum benchmarking efforts, in particular those involving adiabatic quantum computation and the Adiabatic Quantum Optimizers produced by D-Wave Systems, Inc. We find that the performance of D-Wave's Adiabatic Quantum Optimizers scales roughly on par with classical approaches for some hard combinatorial optimization problems; however, architectural limitations of D-Wave devices present a significant hurdle in evaluating real-world applications. In addition to identifying and isolating such limitations, we develop algorithmic tools for circumventing these limitations on future D-Wave devices, assuming they continue to grow and mature at an exponential rate for the next several years.

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This report summarizes the first yearâ€™s effort on the Enceladus project, under which Sandia was asked to evaluate the potential advantages of adiabatic quantum computing for analyzing large data sets in the near future, 5-to-10 years from now. We were not specifically evaluating the machine being sold by D-Wave Systems, Inc; we were asked to anticipate what future adiabatic quantum computers might be able to achieve. While realizing that the greatest potential anticipated from quantum computation is still far into the future, a special purpose quantum computing capability, Adiabatic Quantum Optimization (AQO), is under active development and is maturing relatively rapidly; indeed, D-Wave Systems Inc. already offers an AQO device based on superconducting flux qubits. The AQO architecture solves a particular class of problem, namely unconstrained quadratic Boolean optimization. Problems in this class include many interesting and important instances. Because of this, further investigation is warranted into the range of applicability of this class of problem for addressing challenges of analyzing big data sets and the effectiveness of AQO devices to perform specific analyses on big data. Further, it is of interest to also consider the potential effectiveness of anticipated special purpose adiabatic quantum computers (AQCs), in general, for accelerating the analysis of big data sets. The objective of the present investigation is an evaluation of the potential of AQC to benefit analysis of big data problems in the next five to ten years, with our main focus being on AQO because of its relative maturity. We are not specifically assessing the efficacy of the D-Wave computing systems, though we do hope to perform some experimental calculations on that device in the sequel to this project, at least to provide some data to compare with our theoretical estimates.

This report summarizes activities undertaken during FY08-FY10 for the LDRD Peridynamics as a Rigorous Coarse-Graining of Atomistics for Multiscale Materials Design. The goal of our project was to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. The goal of our project is to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. Our coarse-graining overcomes the intrinsic limitation of coupling atomistics with classical continuum mechanics via the FEM (finite element method), SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics), or MPM (material point method); namely, that classical continuum mechanics assumes a local force interaction that is incompatible with the nonlocal force model of atomistic methods. Therefore FEM, SPH, and MPM inherit this limitation. This seemingly innocuous dichotomy has far reaching consequences; for example, classical continuum mechanics cannot resolve the short wavelength behavior associated with atomistics. Other consequences include spurious forces, invalid phonon dispersion relationships, and irreconcilable descriptions/treatments of temperature. We propose a statistically based coarse-graining of atomistics via peridynamics and so develop a first of a kind mesoscopic capability to enable consistent, thermodynamically sound, atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) multiscale material simulation. Peridynamics (PD) is a microcontinuum theory that assumes nonlocal forces for describing long-range material interaction. The force interactions occurring at finite distances are naturally accounted for in PD. Moreover, PDs nonlocal force model is entirely consistent with those used by atomistics methods, in stark contrast to classical continuum mechanics. Hence, PD can be employed for mesoscopic phenomena that are beyond the realms of classical continuum mechanics and atomistic simulations, e.g., molecular dynamics and density functional theory (DFT). The latter two atomistic techniques are handicapped by the onerous length and time scales associated with simulating mesoscopic materials. Simulating such mesoscopic materials is likely to require, and greatly benefit from multiscale simulations coupling DFT, MD, PD, and explicit transient dynamic finite element methods FEM (e.g., Presto). The proposed work fills the gap needed to enable multiscale materials simulations.

We implemented two numerical simulation capabilities essential to reliably predicting the effect of non-ideal explosives (NXs). To begin to be able to treat the multiple, competing, multi-step reaction paths and slower kinetics of NXs, Sandia's CTH shock physics code was extended to include the TIGER thermochemical equilibrium solver as an in-line routine. To facilitate efficient exploration of reaction pathways that need to be identified for the CTH simulations, we implemented in Sandia's LAMMPS molecular dynamics code the MSST method, which is a reactive molecular dynamics technique for simulating steady shock wave response. Our preliminary demonstrations of these two capabilities serve several purposes: (i) they demonstrate proof-of-principle for our approach; (ii) they provide illustration of the applicability of the new functionality; and (iii) they begin to characterize the use of the new functionality and identify where improvements will be needed for the ultimate capability to meet national security needs. Next steps are discussed.

7 Results