## ExaWind: Exascale Predictive Wind Plant Flow Physics Modeling

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The goal of the ExaWind project is to enable predictive simulations of wind farms composed of many MW-scale turbines situated in complex terrain. Predictive simulations will require computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for which the mesh resolves the geometry of the turbines, and captures the rotation and large deflections of blades. Whereas such simulations for a single turbine are arguably petascale class, multi-turbine wind farm simulations will require exascale-class resources. The primary code in the ExaWind project is Nalu, which is an unstructured-grid solver for the acoustically-incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and mass continuity is maintained through pressure projection. The model consists of the mass-continuity Poisson-type equation for pressure and a momentum equation for the velocity. For such modeling approaches, simulation times are dominated by linear-system setup and solution for the continuity and momentum systems. For the ExaWind challenge problem, the moving meshes greatly affect overall solver costs as re-initialization of matrices and re-computation of preconditioners is required at every time step We describe in this report our efforts to decrease the setup and solution time for the mass-continuity Poisson system with respect to the benchmark timing results reported in FY18 Q1. In particular, we investigate improving and evaluating two types of algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioners: Classical Ruge-Stfiben AMG (C-AMG) and smoothed-aggregation AMG (SA-AMG), which are implemented in the Hypre and Trilinos/MueLu software stacks, respectively. Preconditioner performance was optimized through existing capabilities and settings.

The goal of the ExaWind project is to enable predictive simulations of wind farms composed of many MW-scale turbines situated in complex terrain. Predictive simulations will require computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for which the mesh resolves the geometry of the turbines, and captures the rotation and large deflections of blades. Whereas such simulations for a single turbine are arguably petascale class, multi-turbine wind farm simulations will require exascale-class resources.

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Advanced computing hardware and software written to exploit massively parallel architectures greatly facilitate the computation of extremely large problems. On the other hand, these tools, though enabling higher fidelity models, have often resulted in much longer run-times and turn-around-times in providing answers to engineering problems. The impediments include smaller elements and consequently smaller time steps, much larger systems of equations to solve, and the inclusion of nonlinearities that had been ignored in days when lower fidelity models were the norm. The research effort reported focuses on the accelerating the analysis process for structural dynamics though combinations of model reduction and mitigation of some factors that lead to over-meshing.

SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis

We present a new family of stabilized methods for the Stokes problem. The focus of the paper is on the lowest order velocity-pressure pairs. While not LBB compliant, their simplicity and attractive computational properties make these pairs a popular choice in engineering practice. Our stabilization approach is motivated by terms that characterize the LBB "deficiency" of the unstable spaces. The stabilized methods are defined by using these terms to modify the saddle-point Lagrangian associated with the Stokes equations. The new stabilized methods offer a number of attractive computational properties. In contrast to other stabilization procedures, they are parameter free, do not require calculation of higher order derivatives or edge-based data structures, and always lead to symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, the new methods are unconditionally stable, achieve optimal accuracy with respect to solution regularity, and have simple and straightforward implementations. We present numerical results in two and three dimensions that showcase the excellent stability and accuracy of the new methods. © 2006 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis

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Proposed for publication in Applied Numerical Mathematics.

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The ability to generate a suitable finite element mesh in an automatic fashion is becoming the key to being able to automate the entire engineering analysis process. However, placing an all-hexahedron mesh in a general three-dimensional body continues to be an elusive goal. The approach investigated in this research is fundamentally different from any other that is known of by the authors. A physical analogy viewpoint is used to formulate the actual meshing problem which constructs a global mathematical description of the problem. The analogy used was that of minimizing the electrical potential of a system charged particles within a charged domain. The particles in the presented analogy represent duals to mesh elements (i.e., quads or hexes). Particle movement is governed by a mathematical functional which accounts for inter-particles repulsive, attractive and alignment forces. This functional is minimized to find the optimal location and orientation of each particle. After the particles are connected a mesh can be easily resolved. The mathematical description for this problem is as easy to formulate in three-dimensions as it is in two- or one-dimensions. The meshing algorithm was developed within CoMeT. It can solve the two-dimensional meshing problem for convex and concave geometries in a purely automated fashion. Investigation of the robustness of the technique has shown a success rate of approximately 99% for the two-dimensional geometries tested. Run times to mesh a 100 element complex geometry were typically in the 10 minute range. Efficiency of the technique is still an issue that needs to be addressed. Performance is an issue that is critical for most engineers generating meshes. It was not for this project. The primary focus of this work was to investigate and evaluate a meshing algorithm/philosophy with efficiency issues being secondary. The algorithm was also extended to mesh three-dimensional geometries. Unfortunately, only simple geometries were tested before this project ended. The primary complexity in the extension was in the connectivity problem formulation. Defining all of the interparticle interactions that occur in three-dimensions and expressing them in mathematical relationships is very difficult.

16 Results