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[Sandia Lab News]

Vol. 52, No. 8 April 21, 2000
[Sandia National Laboratories]

Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0165    ||   Livermore, California 94550-0969
Tonopah, Nevada; Nevada Test Site; Amarillo, Texas

Epidemic outbreaks, biological attacks detectable by simple electronic reporting method
Pilot program to help doctors identify killer disease outbreaks

By Neal Singer

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In a Hollywood-style biological attack, Bruce Willis or, perhaps, George Clooney would be expected to render the killer virus harmless in 90 minutes.

Because happy endings in real life are less certain, a pilot program to help doctors identify and contain disease outbreaks has begun at Sandia. The program is expected to become operational within the next three months.

Its intent -- which certainly, on a movie set, would build tension quickly -- is to make it easy for doctors to use the Internet to transmit data to a central computer about diseases they encounter every day. A color-coded map on the computer's screen will make immediately apparent if a particular set of disease characteristics has appeared in a given area. If the disease expands in space over time, the area could be cordoned off. Vaccines would be immediately shipped to doctors in the area.

"No such program currently exists," says Sandia team leader Al Zelicoff (5353), who is both a medical doctor and a physicist at the Labs' Center for National Security and Arms Control. "We've designed a system so that when a first wave of reports pops into emergency status, all the parameters needed to characterize the disease are already in hand."

Such a system would have been invaluable in the recent and possibly recurring outbreak of West Nile fever in the New York City area, he says. The disease was originally misdiagnosed as St. Louis encephalitis, and weeks went by before it was clear an outbreak was occurring.

"Imagine a surgical resident who's working the emergency room of a hospital," says Al. "What does he or she know about infectious diseases or what's been circulating in the community? Basically, nothing. It'll give quite an update for them."

While reporting sniffles is important to keep track of ordinary diseases making the rounds, "we want our system to characterize and differentiate an outbreak from things that look like, say, influenza, but aren't -- like biological weapons," says Al. "In order to differentiate signal from noise, we have to know what the noise looks like."

The idea is to close the time gap between identifying the outbreak of a disease and learning that the disease is terrorist in origin. The propagation pattern should be significantly different, as would treatment patterns.

The $50,000 pilot project will be limited to diseases reported at the University of New Mexico Emergency Room and Urgent Care Center. The information will be sent to a central computer at the New Mexico Department of Health. If the system works well, it would be simple to expand it to include other states, says Al. The project is a small part of a larger, international program already funded by DOE -- the Chemical and Biological Non-Proliferation Program (CBNP), which collects data on disease internationally. DoD has asked for a briefing in May, Al says.

Six syndromes will be reportable with simple entries: flu-like illness, adult respiratory distress syndrome, bloody diarrhea and fever, watery diarrhea, rash with fever, and diffuse central nervous system dysfunction with fever.

To make things simple for the physician, demographic data like age, sex, and Zip code will code automatically into the system, and the intent is for all data to be enterable in a minute or less. Database information is expected to be available for the headquarters operator within moments of entry by the physician.

Sandia will provide PC workstations with touch screens, databases, client software, technical support, and funding for administrative assistance and implementation to UNM, as well as to the New Mexico Department of Health. UNM will provide clinical expertise and data entry. Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided interface software.

"The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta is looking for a robust, simple, and rapid syndrome reporting system for naturally occurring diseases in the United States," says Al. "The DOE has contracted with Sandia to provide a system with two parts. One would be of use to health care providers caring for patients with acute, apparently infectious diseases. The second will help public health authorities manage commonly occurring outbreaks and also recognize an unusual disease pattern that warrants special concern or intervention."

Because the privacy of patients is an issue, Sandia is providing special encoding of medical information.

Sandia is a prime developer of technologies intended to mitigate the impact of the use of biological weapons by terrorists.

Last modiŞed: April 20, 2000

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