Public Health systems are:
Complex due to the large number of interdependencies and non-linear interactions among autonomous agents, such as individuals, health care organizations, and governmental agencies
Adaptive in that the behaviors of individuals, organizations, and diseases are highly responsive to the behaviors of other such agents, as well as to hazards and natural disasters
System-of-systems structure is evident in their ability to be recursively decomposed into collections of interacting components, generally to an arbitrarily low level of detail
Ultimately, designed solutions (public health care actions) must be shown to be robust to the uncertainties inherent within the CASoS.