Michael Nole, Ph.D

R&D S&E, Geosciences Engineering

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R&D S&E, Geosciences Engineering


(505) 284-5466

Principal Member of the Technical Staff
Center for Energy & Earth Systems
Applied Systems Analysis & Research Department (8844)


Michael Nole is a computational geosciences engineer and lead developer of PFLOTRAN for the Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment Program at Sandia National Laboratories. His primary expertise involves developing scalable, open-source, multi-physics simulation software for studying multiphase fluid flow and reactive transport in porous media. Research interests include geologic radioactive waste disposal, Arctic geosystems modeling and characterization, marine gas and gas hydrate systems, and intersections between machine learning and physical modeling for Earth science applications.


2022Principal Member of the Technical Staff
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2021Senior Member of the Technical Staff
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2021Acting Manager, Applied Systems Analysis & Research
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2018Senior Member of the Technical Staff
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico


2018Ph.D in Geosystems Engineering
University of Texas at Austin
2015M.S. in Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering
University of Texas at Austin
2013B.S. in Civil & Environmental Engineering
University of California at Berkeley

Awards & Honors

2022Employee Recognition (ERA) Award
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Peer Review
2022Future Leaders Pathways Program
FY22 cohort of 30 staff selected from a labs-wide nomination process


Kim, S., Zadeh, A. H., Nole, M., Daigle, H., Huh, C., & Kim, I. (2022). Spontaneous generation of stable CO2 emulsions via the dissociation of nanoparticle-aided CO2 hydrate. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 208, 109203.

Nole, M., Leone, R., Park, H., Paul, M., Salazar, A., Hammond, G., & Lichtner, P. (2021). PFLOTRAN Development FY2021 (No. SAND2021-8709R). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States).

Birkholzer, J., Faybishenko, et al. (2021). International Collaboration Activities in Geologic Disposal Research: FY21 Progress (LBNL-2001433). Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Berkeley, CA (United States).

Chang, K. W., Nole, M., & Stein, E. R. (2021). Reduced-order modeling of near-field THMC coupled processes for nuclear waste repositories in shale. Computers and Geotechnics, 138, 104326.

Eymold, W., Frederick, J.M., Nole, M., Phrampus, B.J., and Wood, W. (2021). ”Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation at Blake Ridge using Machine Learning and Probabilistic Reservoir Simulation.” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Swinney, M., Bhatt, S., Panicker, N., Davidson, G., Kucinski, N., Nole, M., Banerjee, K., Gonzalez, E., and Kiedrowski, B. (2021). Steady-state and Time-dependent Coupled Simulations of a Critical Dual-Purpose Canister in a Saturated Repository. (ORNL-SPR-2021-2229). Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States).

Frederick, J., Eymold, W., Nole, M., Phrampus, B. J., Lee, T. R., Wood, W. T., … & Conley, E. (2021). Forecasting Marine Sediment Properties with Geospatial Machine Learning (SAND2021-10675). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States).

Price, L. L., Alsaed, A., Barela, A. C., Brady, P. V., Gelbard, F., Gross, M., … & Gonzalez, E. (2020). Preliminary Analysis of Postclosure DPC Criticality Consequences (No. SAND-2020-4106). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States).

Mariner, P., Nole, M., Basurto, E., Berg, T. M., Chang, K. W., Debusschere, B., … & Swiler, L. P. (2020). Advances in GDSA Framework Development and Process Model Integration (No. SAND-2020-10787R). Sandia National Lab.(SNL- NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Lab.(SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States).

LaForce, T., Chang, K. W., Perry, F. V., Lowry, T. S., Basurto, E., Jayne, R. S., … & Nole, M. (2020). GDSA Repository Systems Analysis Investigations (FY2020) (No. SAND-2020-12028R). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States).

Cook, A. E., Paganoni, M., Clennell, M. B., McNamara, D. D., Nole, M., Wang, X., … Petronotis, K. E. (2020). Physical Properties and Gas Hydrate at a Near-Seafloor Thrust Fault, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(16), e2020GL088474.

White, M. D., Kneafsey, T. J., Seol, Y., Waite, W. F., Uchida, S., Lin, J. S., … Zyrianova, M. (2020). An international code comparison study on coupled thermal, hydrologic and geomechanical processes of natural gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 104566.

Barnes, P. M., Wallace, L. M., Saffer, D. M., Bell, R. E., Underwood, M. B., Fagereng, A., … Expedition, I. O. D. P. (2020). Slow slip source characterized by lithological and geometric heterogeneity. Science advances, 6(13), eaay3314.

Mariner, P., Connolly, L. A., Cunningham, L., Debusschere, B., Dobson, D., Frederick, J. M., … & Wallace, M. G. (2019). Progress in Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment in the US since 2010 (No. SAND2019-12001R). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States).

Sevougian, S., Stein, E., LaForce, T., Perry, F., Nole, M., & Chang, K. W. (2019). GDSA Repository Systems Analysis FY19 Update (No. SAND2019-11942R). Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States).

Fagereng, Å ., Savage, H. M., Morgan, J. K., Wang, M., Meneghini, F., Barnes, P. M., … IODP Expedition 372/375 Scientists. (2019). Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Geology, 47(9), 872-876.

Gray, M., Bell, R. E., Morgan, J. V., Henrys, S., Barker, D. H., IODP Expedition 372 and 375 science parties. (2019). Imaging the shallow subsurface structure of the North Hikurangi Subduction Zone, New Zealand, using 2-D full- waveform inversion. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124(8), 9049-9074.

Wei, L., Cook, A., Daigle, H., Malinverno, A., Nole, M., You, K. (2019). Factors controlling short- range methane migration of gas hydrate accumulations in thin coarse-grained layers. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20(8), 3985-4000.

Nole, M., Daigle, H., Cook, A. E., Malinverno, A., Flemings, P. B. (2018). Burial-driven methane recycling in marine gas hydrate systems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 499, 197-204.

Hillman, J. I., Cook, A. E., Daigle, H., Nole, M., Malinverno, A., Meazell, K., Flemings, P. B. (2017). Gas hydrate reservoirs and gas migration mechanisms in the Terrebonne Basin, Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 86, 1357-1373.

Nole, M., Daigle, H., Cook, A. E., Hillman, J. I., Malinverno, A. (2017). Linking basin-scale and pore- scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18(2), 653-675.

Kim, I., Nole, M., Jang, S., Ko, S., Daigle, H., Pope, G. A., Huh, C. (2017). Highly porous CO2 hydrate generation aided by silica nanoparticles for potential secure storage of CO2 and desalination. RSC advances, 7(16), 9545-9550.

Nole, M., Daigle, H., Milliken, K. L., Prodanovic, M. (2016). A method for estimating microporosity of fine-grained sediments and sedimentary rocks via scanning electron microscope image analysis. Sedimentology, 63(6), 1507-1521.

Nole, M., Daigle, H., Cook, A. E., Malinverno, A. (2016). Short-range, overpressure-driven methane migration in coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(18), 9500-9508.