"Diverging Color Maps for Scientific Visualization." Kenneth Moreland. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Visual Computing, December 2009. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-10520-3_9.
One of the most fundamental features of scientific visualization is the process of mapping scalar values to colors. This process allows us to view scalar fields by coloring surfaces and volumes. Unfortunately, the majority of scientific visualization tools still use a color map that is famous for its ineffectiveness: the rainbow color map. This color map, which naively sweeps through the most saturated colors, is well known for its ability to obscure data, introduce artifacts, and confuse users. Although many alternate color maps have been proposed, none have achieved widespread adoption by the visualization community for scientific visualization. This paper explores the use of diverging color maps (sometimes also called ratio, bipolar, or double-ended color maps) for use in scientific visualization, provides a diverging color map that generally performs well in scientific visualization applications, and presents an algorithm that allows users to easily generate their own customized color maps.
Diverging Color Maps for Scientific Visualization (Expanded): This version of the paper has some material in addition to that of the original publication. There is more background information and more figures to make the material easier to understand. There are also some added algorithms and tables to make it easier to create the color map. At one point I had all this fitting in 8 pages using two column formatting. Unfortunately, the ISVC formatting is less compact and I had to dramatically cut out material to get it to fit. If you wish, you can also view the originally published material.