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How are packages certified?
What are full-scale tests?
What are scale-model tests?
What is computer analysis?
Package Certification Using Computer Analysis
Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists
Engineering Principles Applied to Ancient Structures
Description of Computer Model in Computer Analysis
Engineered Structures Built WITHOUT the Use of Computer Analysis
Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis
What are examples of severe testing?
How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?
Demonstrating target hardness.
The Pyramids of Giza
Large sandstone blocks and limestone facing (mostly missing), Pyramid of Khufu (largest) is as tall as a 50-story building
3200 BC, Egypt
Brooklyn Bridge
Steel cable and masonry piers, spans 1600 feet
late 1869-1883, U.S.
Eiffel Tower
Exposed iron, 985 feet high
late 1887-1889, Paris France
Crystal Palace
Cast iron and glass, 770,000 square feet
1850, UK

Built in Hyde Park London.
Disassembled, moved, and reassembled in Southeast London.
Destroyed by fire in 1936.

DOE | NTP Headquarters | NTP Albuquerque Operations
Sandia National Laboratories | Nuclear Energy & Fuel Cucle Programs
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