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How are packages certified?
What are full-scale tests?
What are scale-model tests?
What is computer analysis?
What are examples of severe testing?
How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?
Demonstrating target hardness.
Type B packages that transport radioactive materials must survive a sequence of full-scale (actual physical size) impact, puncture, fire, and immersion tests designed to replicate transportation accident conditions.

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions tests 1 through 4 (Drop, Crush, Puncture and Fire) are sequential, test 5 (Immersion) is performed on either a previously tested or untested package.

Free Drop Test Crush Test Puncture Test Fire Test Immersion Test
[DROP test]
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[CRUSH test]
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[PNCTR test]
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[FIRE test]
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[IMMRSN test]
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Dropping a package from 30 feet onto an unyielding target. (the unyielding target forces all of the deformation to be in the package, none in the target). The speed on impact is 44 feet per second or 30 miles per hour. Dropping a 1100 pound steel plate from 30 feet onto a package. This test is only required for packages weighing less than 1100 pounds. The speed on impact is 44 feet per second or 30 miles per hour. Dropping a package from 40 inches onto a welded, 6 inch diameter, steel spike. The speed on impact is 14.6 feet per second or 10 miles per hour. Placing a package 40 inches above a pool of burning fuel for 30 minutes at 800 degrees Celsius (1475 degrees Fahrenheit). Placing a package under 50 feet of water for 8 hours. Fissile material packages are also immersed under 3 feet of water for 8 hours sequentially after tests 1 through 4.
Real-Life Accident Comparison
Real-Life Accident Comparison
Real-Life Accident Comparison
Real-Life Accident Comparison
Real-Life Accident Comparison

DOE | NTP Headquarters | NTP Albuquerque Operations
Sandia National Laboratories | Nuclear Energy & Fuel Cucle Programs
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