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 Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists
 Archimedes, 287-212 BC Greek mathematician, engineer, physicist, and inventor. Oil Paintingby Jusepe de Ribera, 1630 Developed these engineering methods: defined the principle of the lever first class lever (sissors) second class lever (wheelbarrow) third class lever (arm, bat) invented the compound pulley, spool and rope (elevator) invented the hydraulic screw, for raising water from a lower to a higher level discovered the law of hydrostatics, known as Archimedes' Principle evaluated pi by equating the circumference of a circle to fractions of its diameter (< 3 1/7 d and > 3 10/71 d; or about 3.14) discovered a mirror system that burned invader's boots & ships by focusing the sun's rays Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 English physicistand mathematician. Oil paintingby Godfrey Kneller, 1689 Newton's Three Laws of Motion Inertia Acceleration Action and Reaction Newton's Law of Gravitation Any object or piece of matter, from the size of a planet to a pinhead, has an attracting or gravitational force. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses. The gravitational force varies with the distance between the two objects (gravitational force of an object weakens quickly as the distance from it increases). Formula of gravity, F = Gm1 m2 r 2 Where F is the gravitational force, G is the gravitational constant (a number that is always the same), m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between them. Robert Hooke, 1635-1703 English scientist, mathematician, architect, and inventor. Hooke Memorial Window(destroyed), St. Helen's Bishopsgate Hooke's law (describing elasticity) Stress is directly proportional to strain in deformable body mechanics Strain - the relative change in shape or size of an object due to externally applied force Stress - the internal force associated with a strain. The equation [stress] = E[strain]

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