


What is computer analysis?


Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists 











Archimedes, 287212 BC
Greek mathematician, engineer,
physicist, and inventor.
Oil Painting by Jusepe de Ribera, 1630

Developed these engineering methods:
 defined the principle of the lever
 first class lever (sissors)
 second class lever (wheelbarrow)
 third class lever (arm, bat)
 invented the compound pulley, spool and rope (elevator)
 invented the hydraulic screw, for raising water from a lower to a higher level
 discovered the law of hydrostatics, known as Archimedes' Principle
 evaluated pi by equating the circumference of a circle to fractions of its diameter (< 3 1/7 d and > 3 10/71 d; or about 3.14)
 discovered a mirror system that burned invader's boots & ships by focusing the sun's rays


Sir Isaac Newton 16421727
English physicist and mathematician.
Oil painting by Godfrey Kneller, 1689

Newton's Three Laws of Motion
 Inertia
 Acceleration
 Action and Reaction
Newton's Law of Gravitation
 Any object or piece of matter, from the size of a planet to a pinhead, has an attracting or gravitational force.
 The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses.
 The gravitational force varies with the distance between the two objects (gravitational force of an object weakens quickly as the distance from it increases).
 Formula of gravity, F = Gm_{1} m_{2} r ^{2}
Where F is the gravitational force, G is the gravitational constant (a number that is always the same), m_{1} and m_{2} are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between them.


Robert Hooke, 16351703
English scientist, mathematician,
architect, and inventor.
Hooke Memorial Window (destroyed), St. Helen's Bishopsgate

Hooke's law (describing elasticity)
Stress is directly proportional to strain in deformable body mechanics
 Strain  the relative change in shape or size of an object due to externally applied force
 Stress  the internal force associated with a strain.
 The equation
[stress] = E[strain]

