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How are packages certified?
What are full-scale tests?
What are scale-model tests?
What is computer analysis?
Package Certification Using Computer Analysis
Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists
Engineering Principles Applied to Ancient Structures
Description of Computer Model in Computer Analysis
Engineered Structures Built WITHOUT the Use of Computer Analysi
Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis
What are examples of severe testing?
How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?
Demonstrating target hardness.
Archimedes, 287-212 BC
Greek mathematician, engineer,
physicist, and inventor.

Oil Painting
by Jusepe de Ribera, 1630

Developed these engineering methods:
  • defined the principle of the lever
    • first class lever (sissors)
    • second class lever (wheelbarrow)
    • third class lever (arm, bat)
  • invented the compound pulley, spool and rope (elevator)
  • invented the hydraulic screw, for raising water from a lower to a higher level
  • discovered the law of hydrostatics, known as Archimedes' Principle
  • evaluated pi by equating the circumference of a circle to fractions of its diameter (< 3 1/7 d and > 3 10/71 d; or about 3.14)
  • discovered a mirror system that burned invader's boots & ships by focusing the sun's rays
Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727
English physicist
and mathematician.

Oil painting
by Godfrey Kneller, 1689

Newton's Three Laws of Motion
  1. Inertia
  2. Acceleration
  3. Action and Reaction

Newton's Law of Gravitation

  • Any object or piece of matter, from the size of a planet to a pinhead, has an attracting or gravitational force.
  • The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses.
  • The gravitational force varies with the distance between the two objects (gravitational force of an object weakens quickly as the distance from it increases).
  • Formula of gravity, F = Gm1 m2 r 2
    Where F is the gravitational force, G is the gravitational constant (a number that is always the same), m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between them.
Robert Hooke, 1635-1703
English scientist, mathematician,
architect, and inventor.

Hooke Memorial Window
(destroyed), St. Helen's Bishopsgate

Hooke's law (describing elasticity)

    Stress is directly proportional to strain in deformable body mechanics
    • Strain - the relative change in shape or size of an object due to externally applied force
    • Stress - the internal force associated with a strain.
    • The equation

      [stress] = E[strain]


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