"How SAFE are radioactive material transportation packages?"
SAFE
HOME

RAM
PACKAGES
TESTING &
CERTIFICATION
REGULATIONS
& GUIDANCE

SEARCH
SITE MAP

How are packages certified?
What are full-scale tests?
What are scale-model tests?
What is computer analysis?
Package Certification Using Computer Analysis
Engineering Principles Established by Three Early Scientists
Engineering Principles Applied to Ancient Structures
Description of Computer Model in Computer Analysis
Engineered Structures Built WITHOUT the Use of Computer Analysis
Structures Analyzed WITH the Use of Computer Analysis
What are examples of severe testing?
How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?
Demonstrating target hardness.
Computer analysis is an application of known engineering principles that take advantage of high-power computing capabilities in solving the response of computer models to various environments with complex mathematical calculations.

Computer analysis can be used for package certification by generating a computer model of a test object (package) and subjecting it to an accident environment to understand its response.

A computer model must be constructed with the same weights, dimensions, hardnesses, specific heat, conduction, etc. as an actual package, then an analysis of an accident environment is calculated.

The way that engineers ensure that the computer model of a specific package responds the same as a full-scale test in a specific accident is by benchmarking (verifing) the model with at least one full-scale test. This allows the engineer to conduct as many tests as required with the same package model.

Sandia National Laboratories' Transportation Programs has conducted physical full-scale and scale-model tests for many types of packages and has used the results to benchmark the computer codes for structural and thermal analyses.

Regulatory Testing with Computer Analyses
Drop Environment Crush Environment Puncture Environment Thermal Environment Thermal Environment
[structural analysis]
Click to view picture
[being dev.]
Click to view picture
[PNCTR analysis]
Click to view picture
[thermal analysis]
Click to view picture
[thermal analysis]
Click to view picture
Extra-Regulatory Testing with Computer Analyses
Ship Collision High-Speed Impact Fork Lift Puncture Torch Fire Ship Hold Fire
[structural analysis]
Click to view picture
[structural analysis]
Click to view picture
[puncture analysis]
Click to view picture
TORCH FIRE
Click to view picture
[thermal analysis]
Click to view picture
Determination of ship and packaging response to a ship-to-ship collision. Determination of the response of a generic spent fuel packaging to a series of impact accidents. Determination of the response of a small drum packaging to a puncture from a fork-lift tine. Determination of the response of a spent fuel packaging to a torch fire. Determination of the response of a simulated spent fuel packaging to a cargo fire in a ship.

DOE | NTP Headquarters | NTP Albuquerque Operations
Sandia National Laboratories | Nuclear Energy & Fuel Cucle Programs
Acknowledgment and Disclaimer