"How SAFE are radioactive material transportation packages?"
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How are packages certified?
What are full-scale tests?
What are scale-model tests?
What is computer analysis?
What are examples of severe testing?
How do the certification tests compare to real-life accidents?
Real-Life Accidents
Free Drop Comparison
Crush Comparison
Puncture Comparison
Fire Comparison
Immersion Comparison
Demonstrating target hardness.
Hypothetical Accident Conditions: Six tests as defined in 10 CFR Part 71.73 of the NRC transportation regulations were established to provide repeatable and definable conditions that encompass most real-life accidents.

The real-life accidents on this page are comparisons to the environments that the regulatory hypothetical accidents protect against.

The collision forces or fire temperature and duration that were present in each accident are similar to the conditions that spent fuel casks are designed to survive.

Passenger Train and Semi-truck Trailer Collision

[DROP scenario]

Mack Truck and Subaru Collision

[CRUSH scenario]

Freight Train and Freight Train Collision

[PNCTR scenario]

Gasoline Tanker and Sedan collision under an Overpass

[FIRE scenario]

Passenger Cruise Ship and Cargo Ship Collision

[IMMRSN scenario]

Free Drop
comparison
Crush
comparison
Puncture
comparison
Fire
comparison
Immersion
comparison

The sources of images (above) are accident accounts with photographic records that are publicly available on the World Wide Web. Those that best illustrate the various forces to which a package may be subjected in the course of an accident were selected.

Example: The grade-crossing accident illustrates a severe realistic free drop environment. The train struck the truck at around 60 mph and was so massive that it was unable to stop until it had traveled about 800 feet beyond the impact point. Had the truck been carrying a Type B RAM package when it was struck by the train, the force on the package would have been less than that to which it was subjected in the drop test.


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