Where existing or new CSR under development do not address a particular issue, a need may exist to develop a new CSR. Based on input from the CSR WG, the following issues have been identified as possible subjects for new standards, and work on each is under way through the development of a protocol/pre-standard by a task group organized under the CSR WG. If a standards development organization (SDO) has officially established a project for a possible standard, the information below will direct users to the appropriate information on the SDO website.
Through collaboration, task groups comprised of interested stakeholders are working on a pre-standard for each topic that can be adapted and used by an SDO in creating a formal standard on each. A task group has been formed to work on a protocol/pre-standard on each of the two topics below. The first is being led by SNL staff and the latter by PNNL staff.
Safety Standard for Mechanical ESS
Currently, there is no standard available that can be used to determine if a mechanical ESS (flywheel) is safe. The availability of such a standard would support testing and certification of mechanical ESS products as being safe.
Title: Safety Standard for Mechanical Energy Storage Systems
Purpose: This standard is intended to establish design criteria and test procedures applicable to mechanical energy storage systems that form the basis for documenting and verifying the safety of those systems.
Scope: This standard covers mechanical energy storage systems and their component parts as singular products or components of such systems intended to be assembled on site to comprise a mechanical energy storage system.
Single Standard to Guide ESS Installations
A myriad of ESS technologies and installation scenarios are possible, and for each, a number of safety-related issues are to be addressed. These include ventilation and exhaust, fire detection and suppression, fire department access, electrical safety, and many more. These issues are addressed through a number of CSR covering one or more of these safety-related issues for the ESS as a “product” and its component parts, as well as the installation and use of the ESS in the built environment. Many of these CSR are covered under the CSR requirements information presented under the ESS Safety Plan CSR focus.
Determining which CSR apply and then aggregating them to document or verify the safety of an ESS installation can be daunting, and virtually everyone faced with seeking the review and approval for an ESS installation may have to do that on their own.
The development of a single standard to cover ESS installations is not intended to preempt or replace any current or future CSR that address various ESS technologies or safety issues. Instead, it is intended to provide a framework for organizing the safety issues in a reasonable manner and then as appropriate referencing specific and relevant CSR for each. Beyond that, a single standard would only contain the necessary language to aggregate and combine those referenced CSR, so that they can be applied in a more appropriate, complete, and timely manner. In this way, those having to document or verify the safety of an ESS have a singular document to refer to which compiles for all relevant CSR and contains any necessary requirements to tie those CSR together.
This process was employed during the 1990’s with the creation of NFPA 853, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems. NFPA 853 provided administrative criteria (scope, purpose, application, retroactivity, etc.), definitions, criteria for the equipment (e.g., testing and listing the fuel cell or components), and sections addressing installation (siting, interconnections, ventilation and exhaust, fire protection, etc.), each of which referenced relevant CSR and included criteria to fill relevant gaps or tie the CSR together for application as a “package” to address the installation’s safety.
A document with the following title, purpose and scope is being considered for development and is likely to proceed in parallel to work to update current CSR requirements contingent on there being sufficient interest in development of such a standard.
Title: Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems
Scope: This standard applies to the design, construction, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, repair, rehabilitation and replacement of stationary energy storage systems and their component parts. The scope of this document shall include the following:
- A singular pre-packaged, self-contained energy storage system (unit)
- Any combination of pre-packaged, self-contained energy storage systems (units)
- Energy storage systems comprising two or more factory matched modular components that are intended to be assembled in the field as an energy storage system
- Engineered and field-constructed energy storage systems that employ the necessary and various components to comprise an energy storage system
Purpose: This standard provides for the safe installation of energy storage systems for the purpose of safeguarding public safety, protecting property and ensuring that safety-related incidents that could occur are minimized and can be readily contained and addressed.
Application: This standard shall not apply to portable energy storage systems or to any energy storage system that is used on any movable structure or vehicle unless the structure is made stationary or the energy stored on the vehicle is used for purposes other than propulsion of the vehicle.