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Sandia National Laboratories Journal Articles

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Date Title Authors Publisher
2014-10

Characterization of Reliability in SiC Power Devices

Abstract: Power devices based on the wide-bandgap semiconductors SiC and GaN have many potential advantages compared to conventional Si-based switching devices, especially for renewable energy and smart grid applications. However, while these emerging devices have developed rapidly in recent years, many factors affecting their performance and reliability remain unknown. In this paper, we discuss some of the key results that have been obtained for both SiC- and GaN-based devices under Sandia National Lab's “post-Silicon” power electronics reliability program. State-of-the-art, commercially available 4H-SiC MOSFETs are evaluated for stability under high-temperature over-voltage and pulsed over-current conditions. The devices show maximum vulnerability under high-temperature off-state operation at high temperature. The room-temperature pulsed over-current operation results in degradation similar to that observed under high-temperature on-state DC conditions, presumably due to overheating of the device beyond its specified junction temperature. Prototype AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with ~1800 V breakdown are evaluated for stability under different bias conditions. Current collapse is observed and analyzed, and trapping components with very different time constants are found to be involved. The specific nature of degradation and recovery depends strongly upon the particular stress bias (gate vs. drain) condition applied.
Marinella, M.,
...
Hughart, D.
Flicker, J.
Atcitty, S.
Kaplar, R.
Proceedings of the 226th meeting of the Electrochemical Society,
2014-10

Switching frequency optimization of a high-frequency link based energy storage system

Abstract: There is currently a big thrust for integrating renewable resources to the electric grid.  With increasing variable generation the need for energy storage devices has escalated.  Traditional storage devices have bulky 60 Hz transformer to provide the electrical isolation from the grid.  But, with the advent of advanced magnetic materials, power electronic topologies with high frequency link transformers are being researched.  These systems have high power density and can be quickly dispatched for remote installations.  This paper presents the design of the energy storage system consisting of the three phase rectifier and bi-directional dual active bride converter.  It presents a methodology to optimize the switching frequency of the dual active bridge converter by minimizing the volume of the transformer and the total losses in the system.  Frequency dependent and independent terms are aggregated and minimized over the range of switching frequency.
Kulasekaran, S.,
...
Ayyanar, R.
Atcitty, S.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)
2014-06

Performance and Reliability Characterization of 1200 V Silicon Carbide Power JFETs at High Temperatures

Abstract: We have characterized 1200 V SiC MOSFETs as well as Junction FETs (JFETs), which do not utilize a gate oxide, at high temperatures under both static and dynamic gate bias stress conditions.  SiC JFET devices demonstrate more stable VT than SiC MOSFET devices for both types of gate bias stresses at high temperatures (Fig. 1b).  For static gate bias stresses, packaged JFET devices exhibited a negligible VT shift  (ΔVT < 2 mV) for temperatures up to 250oC.  At higher temperatures, bare JFET die demonstrated ΔVT < 10 mV up to 525oC.  Further, in contrast to the SiC MOSFETs, the VTof the SiC JFETs was unaffected by dynamic gate bias stress over the test period, although the sub-threshold leakage current increased with time. In addition to monitoring VT shifts, we have calculated the change in density of SiC/SiO2 interface traps (ΔDIT) due to the application of gate stress to MOSFETs.  These profiles can be extracted from I-V curves for SiC MOSFETs based on the changes in sub-threshold slope. This technique can either be used to determine ΔDIT (if body doping and gate capacitance are unknown) or absolute DIT at specific energies within the bandgap (if doping and capacitance are known).
Flicker, J.,
...
Hughart, D.,
Marinella, M.,
Atcitty, S.,
Kaplar, R.
Proceedings of the High Temperature Electronics Conference
2014-06

Trap-Related Parametric Shifts under DC Bias and Switched Operation Life Stress in Power AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

Abstract: This paper reports on trap-related shifts of the transfer curve and threshold voltage of power AlGaN/GaN HEMTs under switched bias operating life and reverse and forward DC bias stress. Opposite polarity threshold voltage shifts at room temperature under operating life and reverse bias stress conditions can be explained by means of drain current transient measurements under reverse bias stress conditions. A proposed model to explain the trapping/de-trapping behavior under different stress conditions is described and highlights the critical role of the electric field. Experimental evidence of the importance of the role of the electric field is seen in reduced parametric shift by improving the field plate design.
Khalil, S.,
...
Ray, L.,
Chen, M.,
Chu, R.,
Zehnder, D.,
Garrido, A.,
Munsi, M.,
Hughes, B.,
Boutros, K.,
Kaplar, R.,
Dickerson, J.,
DasGupta, S.,
Atcitty, S.,
Marinella, M.
Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium
2014-06

A New Technique for Trapped Charge Extraction in SiC MOSFETs from Subthreshold Characteristics

Abstract: A method for extracting interface trap density (DIT) from subthreshold I-V characteristics is used to analyze data on a SiC MOSFET stressed for thirty minutes at 175°C with a gate bias of -20 V. Without knowing the channel doping, the change in DIT can be calculated when referenced to an energy level correlated with the threshold voltage.
Hughart, D.,
...
Flicker, J.,
Atcitty, S.,
Marinella, M.,
Kaplar, R.
Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium
2014

Integrating Energy Storage Devices Into Market Management Systems

Abstract: Intuitively, the integration of energy storage technologies such as pumped hydro and batteries into vertically integrated utility and independent system operator/regional transmission operator (ISO/RTO)-scale systems should confer significant benefits to operations, ranging from mitigation of renewables generation variability to peak shaving. However, the realized benefits of such integration are highly dependent upon the environment in which the integration occurs. Further, integration of storage requires careful modeling extensions of existing market management systems (MMSs), which are currently responsible for market and reliability operations in the grid. In this paper, we outline the core issues that arise when integrating storage devices into an MMS system, ranging from high-level modeling of storage devices for purposes of unit comment and economic dispatch to the potential need for new mechanisms to more efficiently allow for storage to participate in market environments. We observe that the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses of storage integration are sensitive to system-specific details, e.g., wind penetration levels. Finally, we provide an illustrative case study showing significant positive impacts of storage integration.
Silva-Monroy, C.,
...
Watson, J.
Proceedings of the IEEE,
(102):1084-1093
2014

Sol Gel Based Synthesis and Electrochemistry of Magnesium Vanadium Oxide: A Promising Cathode Material for Secondary Magnesium Ion Batteries

Abstract: Magnesium-ion batteries are desirable due to the high environmental abundance and low cost of magnesium metal. Preparation,characterization, and an initial electrochemical study of Mg0.1V2O5 prepared by a novel sol gel method with no high temperature post processing is presented. Cyclic voltammetry showed the material to be quasi-reversible, with improved kinetics in an acetonitrile relative to a carbonate based electrolyte. Galvanostatic test data under a C/10 discharge showed a delivered capacity >250 mAh/g over several cycles. Projecting these results to a magnesium anode battery would yield an average operating voltage ∼3.2 V with an energy density ∼800 mWh/g for the cathode material, suggesting promise of our synthesized material as a viable cathode material for secondary magnesium batteries.
Lee, S.
...
DiLeo, R.,
Marschilok, A.,
Takeuchi, K.,
Takeuchi, E.
ECS Electrochemistry Letters,
3(8):A87-A90
2014

Studies of Iron-Ligand Complexes for an All-Iron Flow Battery Application

Abstract: Seven organic ligands were investigated for use to coordinate reactive ions in the positive electrolyte of an all-iron flow battery.  Exchange current densities, diffusion coefficients, and open circuit potentials of the ligand complexed ferric/ferrous redox couple are presented on a glassy carbon electrode. Results in a flow cell configuration suggest an ohmically controlled cell voltage and a highly distributed current distribution; the contributions from charge transfer and mass transfer are minor. The open circuit potential becomes a major factor in the selection of the complexed redox couple for determining which ligand to use in a flow battery. The iron-glycine complex was further investigated as a function of the ratio of glycine to ferric/ferrous ions and the pH of the solution.  Results suggest a 1:1 glycine to iron ion electrolyte will be soluble up to 0.5 M ferric ion at a pH of 2 with a reaction potential of 468 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (0.690 vs SHE), suitable for use as a positive redox couple in the all-iron flow battery.
Hawthorne, K.
...
Wainright, J.,
Savinell, R.
Journal of The Electrochemical Society,
161(10):A1662-A1671
2014

Maximizing plating density and efficiency for a negative deposition reaction in a flow battery

Abstract: Flow batteries utilizing a plating reaction as the negative reaction are limited in energy capacity by the available void area in the cell stack. Large scale energy storage applications necessitate maximizing the plating density within the flow battery. Six porous negative electrode configurations using conductive and non-conductive materials are considered for use in a hybrid flow battery. Plating results using a Cu Fe sulfate chemistry demonstrated a plating density in a carbon felt electrode (145 mAh cm-2 at 40 mA cm-2). Two layered electrode configurations were able to achieve 150 mAh cm-2 of plating density: carbon felt with non-conductive felt, and carbon felt-Daramic-carbon felt. Both electrode designs were tested with the all-iron chemistry using shallow charge/discharge cycles. The carbon felt with non-conducting felt electrode configuration maintained a voltaic efficiency of 81% over six cycles.
Hawthorne, K.
...
Wainright, J.,
Savinell, R.
Journal of Power Sources,
269(10):216-224
2014

Application of Redox Non-Innocent Ligand to Non-Aqueous Flow Battery Electrolytes

Abstract: Demonstrate that electrolytes comprising redox “non-innocent” ligands, which store equivalents of charge separate from the metal center, are a new avenue for electrical energy storage.
Cappillino, P.
...
Pratt III, H.,
Hudak, N.,
Tomson, N.,
Anderson, T.,
Anstey, M.
Adv. Energy Mater.,
(4):1-4
2014

Phase formation of BaTiO3 - Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite ceramics

Abstract: Materials based on BiMO3-modified BaTiO3 have been shown to exhibit a number of attractive electrical and electromechanical properties. In addition, many of the materials in this broad family exhibit reduced sintering temperatures for densification as compared to pure BaTiO3. We report here a study of the phase evolution and sintering behavior of Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-modified BaTiO3 materials from low-cost mixed oxide/carbonate precursor powders. By accelerating the reaction of the BaCO3 species and increasing the diffusion kinetics associated with densification, Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 additions reduce the calcination and sintering temperatures by ~200°C compared to unmodified BaTiO3. This system provides an example of the important and often overlooked role of additives in the calcination, phase evolution, and densification processes, and provides insight into mechanisms that may be further exploited in this and other important materials systems. We are quite honored to have the opportunity to publish in a special issue dedicated to the life and work of our dear late colleague Prof. Marija Kosec. The topic of this paper is fitting as well, since the work was in large part directly inspired by her work on the importance of reactions and intermediate phases in the alkali niobate systems and heavily informed by her work on the Pb-based perovskites. Marija appreciated better than most the importance of careful processing in the formation of fine ceramics, and the global ceramics community is grateful to her for all of the lessons that she taught us—and through her papers and her students, continues to teach us.
Triamnak, N.
...
Brennecka, G.,
Brown-Shaklee, H.,
Rodriguez, M.,
Cann, D.
J. Cer. Soc. Jpn.,
122:260-266
2014

Evaluation of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion exchange membranes in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

Abstract: Quaternary ammonium functionalized Diels–Alder poly(phenylene)s (QDAPPs) with different ion exchange capacities (IECs) are examined asmembranes in all-vanadiumredox flow batteries. QDAPP membrane behavior is compared to a standard, Nafion 212, in measurements of cycling efficiencies, areal specific resistance (ASR), vanadiumpermeation and durability. The IEC of the QDAPPs clearly shows an impact on the cell ASR and vanadium crossover. The results imply a trade-off between performance, indicated by cell voltage loss at a given current density, and rate of cross-over driven capacity loss in the system. Among the membranes studied, QDAPP with moderate IEC represents the best trade-off of these factors and exhibits higher performance and lower capacity loss compared to Nafion 212. All QDAPP membranes are found to be more durable than the analogous cation exchange membrane, sulfonated DAPP (SDAPP), in V5+ solution.
Sun, C.
...
Tang, Z.,
Belcher, C.,
Zawodzinski, T.,
Fujimoto, C.
Electrochem. Comm.,
43:63-66
2014

Optical measurements of impurities in room-temperature ionic liquids

Abstract: The absorption spectra of 1-methylimidazole and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMIM][TFSI], mixtures from 0% to 20% mole fraction are reported at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. Quantitative measurement of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI] is reported using an isolated 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 1520 cm−1. UV measurements reveal a 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 270 nm and a 260 nm feature for [EMIM][TFSI]. Absorption at 280 nm is demonstrated to scale with 1-methylimidazole mole fraction in [EMIM][TFSI] and is used to measure 1-methylimidazole mole fractions. Absorption is shown to increase around 240 nm upon addition of 1-methylimidazole to [EMIM][TFSI], which preliminary time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify as an intermolecular excitation between [EMIM][TFSI] and 1-methylimidazole. We report recommendations for UV and infrared detection schemes for the quantitative detection of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI].
Porter, J.
...
Dreyer, C.,
Bicknase, D.,
Vyas, S.,
Maupin, M.,
Poshusta, J.,
Martin, J.
Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans.,
133:300-310
2014

The Role of Excess Sodium in Sol-Gel NaSICON Synthesis and Stability

Abstract: Controlling the materials chemistry of the solid-state ion conductor NaSICON is key to realizing its potential utility in emerging sodium-based battery technologies. We describe here the influence of excess sodium on phase evolution of sol-gel synthesized NaSICON. Alkoxide-based sol-gel processing was used to produce powders of Na3Zr2PSi2O12 NaSICON with 0-2 atomic % excess sodium. Phase formation and component volatility were studied as a function of temperature. NaSICON synthesis at temperatures between 900-1100°C with up to 2% excess sodium significantly reduced the presence of zirconia, sodium phosphate, and sodium silicate secondary phases in fired NaSICON powders. Insights into the role of sodium on the phase chemistry of sol-gel processed NaSICON may inform key improvements in NaSICON development.
Bell, N.
...
Edney, C.,
Wheeler, J.,
Ingersoll, D.,
Spoerke, E.
J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.,
DOI: 10.1111/jace.13167
2014

The Design and Development of a 15 kV SiC Half-Bridge Multi-Chip Power Module for Medium Voltage Applications

Abstract: In this work, the packaging design and development of a high voltage (> 15 kV), high current (120 A) silicon carbide (SiC) multi-chip power module (MCPM) will be presented. The module implements a MCPM packaging strategy which itself uses subassemblies to reduce manufacturing cost through reworkability. The use of solderless internal connections aids in reducing cost both by simplifying the assembly process as well as enabling a high level of flexibility in the manufacturing process in order to drive down costs by increasing yield. A wire bondless flip-chip die interconnection scheme has been developed in this work in parallel with a more traditional wire bonded method.  Both presented approaches utilize a common set of parts with minimal differences due to the divergent portions of each interconnection scheme. Device neutrality in this design ensures that a variety of die types from any manufacturer may be housed in a number of arrangements depending on the requirements of the end-use application without requiring significant redesign effort for each new application or improvement in device technology. The SiC MCPM is constructed using high temperature capable materials, enabling operation at high junction temperatures. This leads to the ability to design a small, low profile module with low parasitic inductances and a small junction to case thermal resistance. A low module thermal resistance makes it possible to significantly reduce the size and complexity of the cooling systems, ultimately, reducing the size of the system. Thus, the novel high voltage SiC MCPM represents a significant step forward in high voltage switching applications. This paper discusses the overall mechanical design of the SiC high voltage MCPM; the three-dimensional finite-element modeling and analysis of the thermal and electrical characteristics of the high voltage power module are also presented.
Cole, Z.
...
Stabach, J.,
Falling, G.,
Killeen, P.,
McNutt, T.,
Passmore, B.
Proceedings of the IMAPS 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics,
2013-09

Application of Redox Non-Innocent Ligands to Non-Aqueous Flow Battery Electrolytes

Abstract: High energy-density, redox flow batteries (RFB) can provide cost-effective, grid-scale energy storage, facilitating the use of intermittent sources such as solar and wind power. A new electrolyte based on vanadium and redox-active ligands that stores equivalents of charge separately from the metal center is presented. Electrolytes composed of non-innocent ligands greatly enhance both the energy density and stability of non-aqueous RFBs.
Cappillino, P.
...
Pratt III, H.,
Hudak, N.,
Tomson, N.,
Anderson, T.,
Anstey, M.
Advanced Energy Materials
2013-07

Damping of Inter-area Oscillations using Energy Storage

Abstract: Low frequency inter-area oscillations have been identified as a significant problem in utility systems due to the potential for system damage and the resulting restrictions on power transmission over select lines. Previous research has identified real power injection by energy storage based damping control nodes as a promising approach to mitigate inter-area oscillations. In this paper, a candidate energy storage system based on UltraCapacitor technology is evaluated for damping control applications in theWestern Electric Coordinating Council (WECC), and an analytical method for ensuring proper stability margins is also presented for inclusion in a future supervisory control algorithm. Dynamic simulations of the WECC were performed to validate the expected system performance. Finally, the Nyquist stability criteria was employed to derive safe operating regions in the gain, time delay space for a simple two-area system to provide guaranteed margins of stability.
Neely, J.,
...
Byrne, R.,
Elliott, R.,
Silva-Monroy, C.,
Schoenwald, D.,
Trudnowski, D.,
Donnelly, M.
IEEE Power & Energy Society
2013-03

A Polyoxometalate Flow Battery

Abstract: A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multielectron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.
Pratt III, H.,
...
Hudak, N.,
Fang, X.,
Anderson, T.
Journal of Power Sources
2013

Computational model of a sodium--copper-iodide rechargeable battery

Abstract: This paper first derives a model to describe a class of Na-metal-halide secondary batteries, using molten sodium as the anode, NASICON as the sodium-ion-conducting separator, and copper-iodide chemistry in an aqueous electrolyte for the cathode. The model is based upon solving transient conservation equations using a Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) formulation. The broad objective is to develop a predictive model that can assist the design and development of large-scale grid-storage batteries. However, the model-predicted results and discussion are focused on a laboratory-scale battery. Several examples are discussed, considering the effects of current density and catholyte molar concentrations on battery performance.
Zhu, H.
...
Bhavaraju, S.,
Kee, R.
Electrochmica Acta,
112:629-639
2013

Optical Measurements of Impurities in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

Abstract: The absorption spectra of 1-methylimidazole and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMIM][TFSI], mixtures from 0% to 20% mole fraction are reported at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. Quantitative measurement of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI] is reported using an isolated 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 1520 cm(-1). UV measurements reveal a 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 270 nm and a 260 nm feature for [EMIM][TFSI]. Absorption at 280 nm is demonstrated to scale with 1-methylimidazole mole fraction in [EMIM][TFSI] and is used to measure 1-methylimidazole mole fractions. Absorption is shown to increase around 240 nm upon addition of 1-methylimidazole to [EMIM][TFSI], which preliminary time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify as an intermolecular excitation between [EMIM][TFSI] and 1-methylimidazole. We report recommendations for UV and infrared detection schemes for the quantitative detection of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI].
Porter, J.
...
Dreyer, C.,
Bicknase, D.,
Vyas, S.,
Maupin, C.,
Poshusta, J.,
Martin, J.
J. of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer,
133:300-310
2011-04

Experimental Deformation of Salt in Cyclic Loading, Insights from Acoustic Emission Measurements

Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help ensure reliability of renewable energy sources, for example wind and solar, by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings within a geologic storage media. This implies that the storage "container," for example, a salt cavern, may experience small irregular pressure cycling.
Bauer, S.,
...
Broome, S.,
Bronowski, D.,
Rinehart, A.,
Ingraham, M.
Solution Mining Research Institute

 

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Journal Articles

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory Journal Articles

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