DOE Energy Storage Systems Program - Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Publications

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Report No. Title Authors Date
SAND2014-17462

Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

Abstract: The objectives of the project are consistent with the DOE energy programs goals in the following areas: development and evaluation of integrated electrical energy storage systems; analysis and comparison of technologies and applications; and encouraging program participation by industry, academia, research organizations and regulatory agencies. The work reported in this paper is part of our effort to characterize the performance parameters of advanced batteries. The Encell nickel iron (NiFe) battery technology has recently entered the battery market. Encell's initial target markets are stationary applications such as micro-grid, solar, wind, and geothermal back-up energy storage. The NiFe battery chemistry was introduced in 1908 and used in large vehicles and stationary applications. The NiFe battery's advantages are durability and long life. The historical NiFe technology's notable limitations include low specific energy, low power, low charge retention and poor low temperature performance along with being high cost and is still in limited mass production throughout the world today for specific applications. NiFe battery chemistry is known for its robustness, extreme shelf and cycle life. The historical NiFe technology that was most robust to abuse also had limitations in being heavy, low power, low charge retention and poor low temperature performance along with being high cost. Thus, over the years, other nickel battery technologies (e.g., NiCd, NiMH, NiZn, and NiH2) have displaced NiFe in many applications. Encell has developed their NiFe battery to deliver significant advances from the original Edison 1900s technology and addressed the historical shortcomings of the technology. In this paper, the performance of Encell's NiFe cell was evaluated using capacity testing at various rates, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention, deionized water refilling/maintenance requirements and accelerated life testing to evaluate modeled cycle life.

Ferreira, Summer Rhodes,
Baca, Wes,
Avedikian, Kristan
2014-09
SAND2014-2883

Performance Assessment of the PNM Prosperity Electricity Storage Project

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to characterize the technical performance of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project, and to identify lessons learned that can be used to improve similar projects in the future. The PNM Prosperity electricity storage project consists of a 500 kW/350 kWh advanced lead-acid battery with integrated supercapacitor (for energy smoothing) and a 250 kW/1 MWh advanced lead-acid battery (for energy shifting), and is co-located with a 500 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) resource. The project received American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding. The smoothing system is effective in smoothing intermittent PV output. The shifting system exhibits good round-trip efficiencies, though the AC-to-AC annual average efficiency is lower than one might hope. Given the current utilization of the smoothing system, there is an opportunity to incorporate additional control algorithms in order to increase the value of the energy storage system.

Roberson, Dakota,
Ellison, James F.,
Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Schoenwald, David A.
2014-05
SAND2013-8849

Test Report: GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU

Abstract: The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

Rose, David Martin,
Schenkman, Benjamin,
Borneo, Dan
2013-10
SAND2013-8639

Test Report: Raytheon / KTech RK30 Energy Storage System

Abstract: The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

Rose, David Martin,
Schenkman, Benjamin,
Borneo, Dan
2013-10
SAND2013-7606

Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment: A Study for the Energy Storage Systems Program

Abstract: Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Currier, Aileen,
Hernandez, Jacquelynne,
Ma, Ookie,
Kirby, Brendan
2013-09
SAND2013-7084

Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

Abstract: The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program, through the support of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), facilitated the development of the protocol provided in this report. The focus of the protocol is to provide a uniform way of measuring, quantifying, and reporting the performance of ESSs in various applications; something that does not exist today and, as such, is hampering the consideration and use of this technology in the market. The availability of an application-specific protocol for use in measuring and expressing performance-related metrics of ESSs will allow technology developers, power-grid operators and other end-users to evaluate the performance of energy storage technologies on a uniform and comparable basis. This will help differentiate technologies and products for specific application(s) and provide transparency in how performance is measured. It also will assist utilities and other consumers of ESSs to make more informed decisions as they consider the potential application and use of ESSs, as well as form the basis for documentation that might be required to justify utility investment in such technologies.

Ferreira, Summer R.,
Rose, David M.,
Schoenwald, David A.,
Bray, Kathy,
Conover, David,
Kintner-Meyer, Michael,
Viswanathan, Vilayanur
2013-08
SAND2013-6903

Test Report: Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System

Abstract: The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

Rose, David M.,
Schenkman, Benjamin,
Borneo, Dan
2013-08
SAND2013-6902

Test Report: Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device

Abstract: The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

Rose, David M.,
Schenkman, Benjamin,
Borneo, Dan
2013-08
SAND2013-5131

DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA

Abstract: The Electricity Storage Handbook (Handbook) is a how-to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners, and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects. The Handbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists, providing the latest developments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluations of energy storage opportunities. It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics. A list of significant past and present energy storage projects is provided for a practical perspective. This Handbook, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, is published in electronic form at www.sandia.gov/ess.

Akhil, Abbas A.,
Huff, Georgianne,
Currier, Aileen B.,
Kaun, Benjamin C.,
Rastler, Dan M.,
Chen, Stella Bingqing,
Cotter, Andrew L.,
Bradshaw, Dale T.,
Gauntlett, William D.
2013-07
SAND2013-4902

NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation: A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Abstract: This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benefits justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (\NPV"). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

Ellison, James F.,
Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Saaman, Nader,
Jin, Chunlian
2013-06
SAND2013-2818C

Performance Testing of Zinc-Bromine Flow Batteries for Remote Telecom Sites

Abstract: Telecommunication (telecom) sites are often located far from the (AC) electric grid. The electric generators installed at these sites are often very lightly loaded, either because of low usage or high renewable generation. This can results in the generators operating inefficiently. Electrical energy storage, if implemented properly, has the potential to save fuel at sites like these. In principle, this is done by allowing the generator to run more efficiently at a high electrical load while charging energy storage with excess capacity, and remain idle while the energy storage discharges to support the load. This paper describes how the application of Zinc Bromine (Zn-Br) flow batteries could effectively support remote telecom applications through extrapolation of performance metrics from example system test data to remote telecom applications.

Rose, David M.,
Ferreira, Summer R.
2013-05
SAND2013-2789

New Wholesale Power Market Design Using Linked Forward Markets: A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Abstract: This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power markets for improved reliability and efficiency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and offer insufficient economic inducements for new capacity investment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered firm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be specified in detail, and resources can offer the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product definitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure efficient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

Tesfatsion, Leigh,
Silva-Monroy, César,
Loose, Verne,
Ellison, James,
Elliott, Ryan,
Byrne, Raymond,
Guttromson, Ross
2013-04
SAND2013-2251

Southern Company Energy Storage Study: A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Abstract: This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services.
Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy).
Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels.
Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

Ellison, James,
Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Black, Clifton,
Jenkins, Kip
2013-03
SAND2013-0027

Petrologic and Petrophysical Evaluation of the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, for Compressed Air Energy Storage in the Mount Simon Sandstone

Abstract: The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories' petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.

Heath, Jason,
Bauer, Stephen,
Broome, Scott,
Thomas, Daniel,
Rodriguez, Mark
2013-03
SAND2012-10639

Methodology to Determine the Technical Performance and Value Proposition for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Systems: A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Abstract: As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide different grid benefits and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

Byrne, Raymond,
Donnelly, Matthew,
Loose, Verne,
Trudnowski, Daniel
2012-12
SAND2012-10314

Maui Energy Storage Study

Abstract: This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

Ellison, James,
Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Karlson, Benjamin
2012-12
SAND2012-3863

Estimating the Maximum Potential Revenue for Grid Connected Electricity Storage: Arbitrage and Regulation

Abstract: The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (storing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities offered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an electricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strategies, and a tool for capital finance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two different scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

Byrne, Raymond H.,
Silva-Monroy, César
2012-12
SAND2012-9422

Evaluating Utility Owned Electric Energy Storage Systems: A Perspective for State Electric Utility Regulators

Abstract: This report provides a perspective on issues pertaining to the deployment of utility procured electrical energy storage resources. The intended audience includes state electric utility regulatory authorities, their staffs and the planning personnel in the utilities they regulate. Its purpose is to inform the audience about the potential opportunities for energy storage technologies to play a greater role in the evolving electricity marketplace and grid. The surge of investments in renewable energy (RE) during the last decade, particularly wind and solar energy has stimulated interest in energy storage. These technologies have the capability to balance the variability inherent in many RE technologies. The state public utility commissions' (PUC) responsibility for regulating utilities leads to a focus on aspects of grid operations and expansion including: voltage and frequency regulation; distributed generation; renewable energy, particularly the administration of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) mandates; and grid capital investment. Energy storage systems can contribute in each of these areas. Given the potential of energy storage technologies to perform these functions, their access to the regulatory process must be improved together with removal of barriers and appropriate and consistent cost benefit analysis methodologies so that they are routinely included in the suite of options considered for providing key grid services. The solutions that deliver the services cost effectively will likely be the solutions put forth by utilities and approved by utility commissions. Two storage system case studies are presented as a means to illustrate some of the fundamental valuation principles particularly pertinent to energy storage systems.

Bhatnagar, Dhruv,
Loose, Verne
2012-11
SAND2012-1000

Project Report: A Survey of Operating Reserve Markets in U.S. ISO/RTO-managed Electric Energy Regions

Abstract: This survey was undertaken as part of the initial phase of a larger market design project. The goal of the project is to design a wholesale electric power market such that electric energy storage (EES) resources are permitted to participate and receive compensation that is commensurate with the benefits they provide to the grid. This survey compares and contrasts operating reserve markets in the seven U.S. ISO/RTO-managed electric energy regions. The reserve market categories employed in each energy region are placed into a common framework. The terminology used for reserve markets in each region, as well as the characteristics of these markets, is discussed. Finally, the market procedures currently in place in the seven energy regions for the procurement, settlement, and allocation of costs for reserves are examined.

Ellison, James,
Tesfatsion, Leigh,
Loose, Verne,
Byrne, Raymond
2012-09
SAND2012-3862

Hawaii Electric System Reliability

Abstract: This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability "worth" and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

Silva-Monroy, César,
Loose, Verne
2012-08
SAND2012-6745

PV Power Output Smoothing using Energy Storage

Abstract: This paper describes a simple algorithm designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using an energy storage device. A full-scale implementation was deployed in an actual PV Energy demonstration project, in partnership with a utility and a battery manufacturer. The paper describes simulation tests as well as field results. In addition to demonstrating implementation of smoothing controls, this work also served to verify the models, identify best parameter sets for utility operations, and study the operation of an advanced energy storage system under partial state of charge and rapid, irregular charge/discharge cycling.

Ellis, Abraham,
Schoenwald, David,
Hawkins, Jon,
Willard, Steve,
Arellano, Brian
2012-08
SAND2012-1352

Initial Test Results from the RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh Zinc-Bromide Module, Phase 1

Abstract: In this paper the performance results of the RedFlow zinc-bromide module (ZBM) Gen 2.0 are reported for Phase 1 of testing, which includes initial characterization of the module. This included physical measurement, efficiency as a function of charge and discharge rates, efficiency as a function of maximum charge capacity, duration of maximum power supplied, and limited cycling with skipped strip cycles. The goal of this first phase of testing was to verify manufacturer specifications of the zinc-bromide flow battery. Initial characterization tests have shown that the ZBM meets the manufacturer's specifications. Further testing, including testing as a function of temperature and life cycle testing, will be carried out during Phase 2 of the testing, and these results will be issued in the final report, after Phase 2 testing has concluded.

Rose, David M.,
Ferreira, Summer R.
2012-02
SAND2012-0388

Lessons from Iowa: Development of a 270 Megawatt Compressed Air Energy Storage Project in Midwest Independent System Operator

Abstract: The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

Schulte, Robert H.,
Critelli, Nicholas,
Holst, Kent,
Huff, Georgianne
2012-01
SAND2011-3119

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes.

Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole.

Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

Pratt, Joseph W.,
E. Klebanoff, Leonard,
Munoz-Ramos, Karina,
Akhil, Abbas A. ,
Curgus, Dita B.,
Schenkman, Benjamin L.
2011-05
SAND2011-2730

Energy storage systems cost update: a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

Abstract: This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters.

Schoenung, Susan 2011-04
SAND2011-3700

Characterization and Assessment of Novel Bulk Storage Technologies.

Abstract: This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term).

Agrawal, Poonum,
Nourai, Ali,
Markel, Larry,
Fioravanti, Richard,
Gordon, Paul,
Tong, Nellie,
Huff, Georgianne
2011-04
SAND2011-1009

Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid: role of hydropower in existing markets.

Abstract: The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences-the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints on hydro-electric resources, and production cost simulations aimed at quantifying the increased role of hydro.

Loose, Verne W. 2011-01
SAND2010-4862

Selected Test Results from the Neosonic Polymer LI-ion Battery

Abstract: The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C1 discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell #3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45°C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

Hund, Thomas,
Ingersoll, David
2010-07
SAND2010-0815

Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid: Benefits and Market Potential Assessment Guide

Abstract: This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit.

The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy.

The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: elecwell as the quantitietric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates.

Eyer, Jim,
Corey, Garth
2010-02
SAND2009-6457

Benefits from Flywheel Energy Storage for Area Regulation in California – Demonstration Results

Abstract: This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an ‗ancillary service‘ needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system‘s manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems‘ ability to provide ‗rapid-response‘ regulation. (Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources.)

Eyer, Jim 2009-10
SAND2009-5537

Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program. Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

Walmet, Paula S. 2009-06
SAND2009-4070

Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Upgrade Deferral Benefits from Modular Electricity Storage

Abstract: The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

Eyer, Jim 2009-06
SAND2008-8229

Design & Development of a 20-MW Flywheel-based Frequency Regulation Power Plant

Abstract: This report describes the successful efforts of Beacon Power to design and develop a 20-MW frequency regulation power plant based solely on flywheels. Beacon’s Smart Matrix (Flywheel) Systems regulation power plant, unlike coal or natural gas generators, will not burn fossil fuel or directly produce particulates or other air emissions and will have the ability to ramp up or down in a matter of seconds. The report describes how data from the scaled Beacon system, deployed in California and New York, proved that the flywheel-based systems provided faster responding regulation services in terms of cost-performance and environmental impact. Included in the report is a description of Beacon’s design package for a generic, multi-MW flywheel-based, regulation power plant that allows accurate bids from a design/build contractor and Beacon’s recommendations for site requirements that would ensure the fastest possible construction. The paper concludes with a statement about Beacon’s plans for a lower cost, modular-style, modular-style substation based on the 20-MW design.

Rounds, Robert,
Peek, Georgianne H.
2009-01
SAND2008-5583

Selected Test Results from the LiFeBatt Iron Phosphate Li-ion Battery

Abstract: In this paper the performance of the LiFeBatt Li-ion cell was measured using a number of tests including capacity measurements, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, high power partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycling, pulse power measurements, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the iron phosphate Liion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, and wind farm energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the LiFeBatt battery technology can function up to a 10C1 discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h discharge rate (1C). The utility PSOC cycle test at up to the 4C1 pulse rate completed 8,394 PSOC pulsed cycles with a gradual loss in capacity of 10 to 15% depending on how the capacity loss is calculated. The majority of the capacity loss occurred during the initial 2,000 cycles, so it is projected that the LiFeBatt should PSOC cycle well beyond 8,394 cycles with less than 20% capacity loss. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were only very small changes after cycling. Finally, at a 1C charge rate, the over-charge/voltage abuse resulted in the cell venting electrolyte at 110 ºC after 30 minutes and then open-circuiting at 120 ºC with no sparks, fire, or voltage across the cell.

Hund, Thomas D.,
Ingersoll, David T.
2008-09
SAND2008-4247

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems – Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES)

Abstract: This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation’s utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

Ton, Dan T.,
Hanley, Charles J.,
Peek, Georgianne H.,
Boyes, John D.
2008-07
SAND2008-0978

Benefit/Cost Framework for Evaluating Modular Energy Storage

Abstract: The work documented in this report represents another step in the ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program.  This study uses updated cost and performance information for modular energy storage (MES) developed for this study to evaluate four prospective value propositions for MES. The four potentially attractive value propositions are defined by a combination of well-known benefits that are associated with electricity generation, delivery, and use. The value propositions evaluated are: 1) transportable MES for electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment upgrade deferral and for improving local power quality, each in alternating years, 2) improving local power quality only, in all years, 3) electric utility T&D deferral in year 1, followed by electricity price arbitrage in following years; plus a generation capacity credit in all years, and 4) electric utility end-user cost management during times when peak and critical peak pricing prevail.

Schoenung, Susan M.,
Eyer, Jim
2008-02
SAND2007-4268

Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) Load and Resources Profiles

Abstract: In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a “strawman” series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for “typical” homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

Fall, Ndeye,
Giles, Lauren,
Marchionini, Brian,
Skolnik, Edward
2007-07
SAND2007-4253

Long vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: Sensitivity Analysis

Abstract:This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology – asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors – has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories – bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality – with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

Schoenung, Susan M.,
Hassenzahl,William
2007-07
SAND2007-3580

Installation of the First Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP)

Abstract: AEP studied the direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) and chose to transform its entire utility grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets. To that end, AEP installed the first NAS battery-based, energy storage system in North America. After one year of operation and testing, AEP has concluded that, although the initial costs of DESS are greater than conventional power solutions, the net benefits justify the AEP decision to create a grid of DESS with intelligent monitoring, communications, and control, in order to enable the utility grid of the future. This report details the site selection, construction, benefits and lessons learned of the first installation, at Chemical Station in North Charleston, WV.

Nourai, Ali, 2007-06
SAND2006-6740

NAS® Battery Demonstration at American Electric Power

Abstract: The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

Norris, Benjamin L.,
Newmiller, Jeff,
Peek, Georgianne
2007-03
SAND2005-7069

Estimating Electricity Storage Power Rating and Discharge Duration for Utility Transmission and Distribution Deferral

Abstract: This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This “sizing” methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

Eyer, Jim,
Iannucci, Joe,
Butler, Paul C.,
2005-11
SAND2005-4366

Final Report on testing of ACONF Technology for the US Coast Guard National Distress Systems

Abstract: This report documents the results of a six month test program of an Alternative Configuration (ACONF) power management system design for a typical United States  Coast Guard (USCG) National Distress System (NDS) site. The USCG/USDOE funded work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the effect of a Sandia developed battery management technology known as ACONF on the performance of energy storage systems at NDS sites. This report demonstrates the savings of propane gas, and the improvement of battery performance when utilizing the new ACONF designs. The fuel savings and battery performance improvements resulting from ACONF use would be applicable to all current NDS sites in the field. The inherent savings realized when using the ACONF battery management design was found to be significant when compared to battery replacement and propane refueling at the remote NDS sites.

Corey, Garth P.,
Ginn, Jerry W.,
Byrd, Tom M,.
Storey, Leanne M,.
Aaron T. Murray,
Symons, Philip C.
2005-08
SAND2005-0372

Evaluation of Battery/Microturbine Hybrid Energy Storage Technologies at the University of Maryland

Abstract: This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland’s Center for Environmental Energy Engineering

Farber de Anda, Mindi,
Fall, Ndeye K.
2005-03
SAND2004-6177

Energy Storage Benefits and Market Analysis Handbook

Abstract: This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: 1) states’ adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, 2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, 3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and 4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

Eyer, James M.,
Iannucci, Joseph J.,
Corey, Garth P.
2004-12
SAND2004-0914

Reliability of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications

Abstract: A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valveregulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

Farber DeAnda, Mindi,
Miller, Jennifer,
Moseley, Patrick,
Paul Butler
2004-03
SAND2004-0372

Evaluation of Battery/Microturbine Hybrid Energy Storage Technologies at the University of Maryland

Abstract: This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland’s Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

Farber DeAnda, Mindi,
Fall, Ndeye K.
2004-10
SAND2003-2783

Long vs. Short-Term Energy Storage Technologies Analysis: A Life Cycle Cost Study

Abstract: This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for  three application categories–bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality–with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available
for discharge.

Schoenung, Susan M.,
Hassenzahl, William V.
2003-08
SAND2003-2546

Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace Phase III Final Report

Abstract: This report describes Phase I11 of a project entitled Innovative Applications ofEnergy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: 1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and 2) to reduce peak loads in utility “hot spots” such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

Iannucci, Joe,
Eyer ,Jim,
Erdman, Bill
2005-03
SAND2003-1602

Review of test facilities for distributed energy resources. Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Akhil, Abbas Ali,
Lawrence, Chris Marnay,
Lipman, Timothy
2003-05
SAND2003-0362

Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace

Abstract: This report describes the second phase of a project entitled Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. During part one of the effort, nine “Stretch Scenarios” were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific “Storage Market Opportunities” (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

Iannucci, J.,
Eyer, J.,
Butler, Paul C.
2003-02
SAND2002-4084

Technical and Economic Feasibility Of Applying Used EV Batteries in Stationary Applications

Abstract: The technical and economic feasibility of applying used electric vehicle (EV) batteries in stationary applications was evaluated in this study. In addition to identifying possible barriers to EV battery reuse, steps needed to prepare the used EV batteries for a second application were also considered. Costs of acquiring, testing, and reconfiguring the used EV batteries were estimated. Eight potential stationary applications were identified and described in terms of power, energy, and duty cycle requirements. Costs for assembly and operation of battery energy storage systems to meet the requirements of these stationary applications were also estimated by extrapolating available data on existing systems. The calculated life cycle cost of a battery energy storage system designed for each application was then compared to the expected economic benefit to determine the economic feasibility. Four of the eight applications were found to be at least possible candidates for economically viable reuse of EV batteries. These were transmission support, light commercial load following, residential load following, and distributed node telecommunications backup power. There were no major technical barriers found, however further study is recommended to better characterize the performance and life ofused EV batteries before design and testing of prototype battery systems.

Cready, Erin,
Lippert, John,
Pihl, Josh,
Weinstock, Irwin,
Symons, Philip C.,
Rudy Jungst
2003-03
SAND2002-3201J

Correlation of Arrhenius Behavior in Power and Capacity Fades with Cell Impedance and Heat Generation in Cylindrical Lithium-ion Cells

Abstract: A series of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells with an MAG-10 I 1.2 M LiPF6 EC (ethylene carbonate): EMC (ethyl methyl carbonate) (w/w=3:7) 1 Li,Nio.sCoo.lsAlo.os02 configuration were made and tested for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications under various aging conditions of temperature and state-of-charge (SOC). The cells were intermittently characterized for changes in power capability, rate capacity, and impedance as aging progressed. The changes of these properties with temperature, as depicted by Arrhenius equations, were analyzed, We found that the degradation in power and capacity fade seems to relate to the impedance increase in the cell. The degradation follows a multi-stage process. The initial stage of degradation has an activation energy on the order of 50-55 kJ/mol, as derived from power fade andC 1 capacity fade measured at C/1 rate. In addition, microcalorimetry was performed on two separate unaged cells at 80% SOC at various temperatures to measure static heat generation in the cells. We found that the static heat generation has an activation energy on the order of 48-55 kJ/mol, similar to those derived from power andC 1 capacity fade. The correspondence in the magnitude of the activation energy suggests that the power and C1 capacity fades were related to the changes of the impedance in the cells, most likely via the samefading mechanism. The fading mechanism seemed to be related to the static heat generation of the cell.

Liaw, Bor Yann,
Roth, Emanuel P.,
Jungst, Rudolph G.,
Nagasubramanian, Ganesan,
Case, Herbert L.,
Doughty, Daniel H.,
2002-08
SAND2002-1532J

Battcon 2002: A Perspective

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Corey,Garth P.,
Mack, Jack
2002-05
SAND2002-1314

Energy Storage Opportunities Analysis Phase II Final Report

Abstract: This study on the opportunities for energy storage technologies determined electric utility application requirements, assessed the suitability of a variety of storage technologies to meet the requirements, and reviewed the compatibility of technologies to satisfy multiple applications in individual installations. The study is called "Opportunities Analysis" because it identified the most promising opportunities for the implementation of energy storage technologies in stationary applications. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with industry experts from utilities, manufacturers, and research organizations. This Phase II report updates the Phase I analysis performed in 1994.

Butler, P. C. 2002-05
SAND2002-0751

Boulder City Battery Energy Storage Feasibility Study

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories and Black & Veatch, Inc., conducted a system feasibility study to examine options for placing at Boulder City, Nevada an advanced energy storage system that can store off-peak, hydroelectric generated electricity for use during on-peak times. It evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of an energy storage demonstration project currently under consideration for the Municipal Utility Power Company for the City of Boulder City. The study included evaluations of a proposed site and appropriate advanced battery technologies, pre-conceptual design, artist’s conceptions, seasonal electricity load profiles, cost estimates for the battery storage system plus site development and operating costs, and an economic evaluation of the site’s payback potential. The study concluded that the Boulder City site is a viable candidate for a Demonstration Unit of an advanced Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) utilizing either Sodium Sulfur, Vanadium Redox, or Zinc Bromine and Regenesys® technologies and that it would provide a net value to the City of Boulder.

Corey, Garth P.,
Stoddard, Larry E.,
Kerschen, Ryan M.
2002-03
SAND2001-3188

Development of the Capabilities to Analyze the Vulnerability of Bulk Power Systems

Abstract: The electrical grids of North America are an extremely large and complex set of interconnected networks vital to the economic lifeblood and safety of more than 380 million people. These networks are dynamic and constantly changing systems whose operation is vulnerable to significant disruptions due to evolving energy policies as well as from natural and man-made sources. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has identified electric power as a critical infrastructure sector. The 1996 blackouts of the western power system demonstrated the weaknesses of the current power grid reliability analysis tools and highlighted the need for improved techniques to deal with the uncertainties associated with the operation of a bulk power network. An alternative approach involves probabilistic load-flow characterization and is closely related to the analysis methods being developed as part of the nuclear weapon system stockpile surveillance program. Integration of the new probabilistic load-flow analysis techniques and sensitivity analysis methods will provide the tools necessary to statistically characterize the load shedding at each major bus in a very large bulk power system. By probabilistically characterizing the amount of load shed at each network node and then relating this measure to the sensitivity of the grid to failure of this node, the reliability of the grid can be understood more thoroughly. The major objective of this effort was the integration of traditional load-flow analysis packages, advanced optimization methods, and state-of-the-art uncertainty analysis techniques. In parallel with this effort, we addressed issues associated with short-term energy storage devices (e.g., batteries) that might impact the overall reliability of the bulk power system. It was anticipated that a significant impediment to integrating these various tools and techniques was the size of bulk power systems that could be analyzed with this complex suite of tools. Therefore, a secondary objective was the implementation of all software analysis tools on the massively parallel computer systems at Sandia National Laboratories. These risk-based analytical tools can be used for short-term (daily) vulnerability assessment and long-term (yearly) planning for improved network security.

Knusman, David,
Tobinson, David,
Rodriguez, Salvador,
Jungst, Rudolph,
Urbina, Angel,
Paez, Thomas,
Ranade, Satish
2001-10
SAND2001-1110J

Performance of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries in Real-World Stationary Applications: Utility Installations

Abstract: The electrical grids of North America are an extremely large and complex set of interconnected networks vital to the economic lifeblood and safety of more than 380 million people. These networks are dynamic and constantly changing systems whose operation is vulnerable to significant disruptions due to evolving energy policies as well as from natural and man-made sources. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has identified electric power as a critical infrastructure sector. The 1996 blackouts of the western power system demonstrated the weaknesses of the current power grid reliability analysis tools and highlighted the need for improved techniques to deal with the uncertainties associated with the operation of a bulk power network. An alternative approach involves probabilistic load-flow characterization and is closely related to the analysis methods being developed as part of the nuclear weapon system stockpile surveillance program. Integration of the new probabilistic load-flow analysis techniques and sensitivity analysis methods will provide the tools necessary to statistically characterize the load shedding at each major bus in a very large bulk power system. By probabilistically characterizing the amount of load shed at each network node and then relating this measure to the sensitivity of the grid to failure of this node, the reliability of the grid can be understood more thoroughly. The major objective of this effort was the integration of traditional load-flow analysis packages, advanced optimization methods, and state-of-the-art uncertainty analysis techniques. In parallel with this effort, we addressed issues associated with short-term energy storage devices (e.g., batteries) that might impact the overall reliability of the bulk power system. It was anticipated that a significant impediment to integrating these various tools and techniques was the size of bulk power systems that could be analyzed with this complex suite of tools. Therefore, a secondary objective was the implementation of all software analysis tools on the massively parallel computer systems at Sandia National Laboratories. These risk-based  analytical tools can be used for short-term (daily) vulnerability assessment and long-term (yearly) planning for improved network security.

Butler, Paul C.,
Dunleavey, Jennifer,
Farber-Deanda, Mindi,
Moseley, Patrick T.
2001-04
SAND2001-0765

Characteristics and Technologies for Long vs. Short-Term Energy Storage

Abstract: This report describes the results of a study on stationary energy storage technologies for a range of applications that

were categorized according to storage duration (discharge time): long or short. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Energy Storage Systems Program. A wide variety of storage technologies were analyzed according to performance capabilities, cost projects, and readiness to serve these many applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are presented.
Schoenung, S.M. 2001-03
SAND2000-3083

Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group Meeting:  Reclamation/Recycle Sub-Working Group Supplement and Update

Abstract: An update on the California ZEV program was presented. The most recent program review occurred in September 2000 but was not a regulatory review. This means that no changes were made to the program at that time. California rules for handling hazardous waste were also discussed. An emergency Universal Waste Rule has been adopted on an interim basis in California in order to provide a single standard. Information on recycling and life cycle costs was presented for the nickel/metal hydride and lithium-ion battery systems. For AB2 type Ni/MH batteries, the value is in the nickel and in the metal hydride alloy. In the Li-ion case, the cathode is responsible for most of the value, unless a manganese oxide cathode is used. Prices and market trends for some of the more important battery materials were reviewed. Nickel prices have recoveredf rom the depressedle vels of 1998, and have been relatively stable over the past year. Commodity recycling flow diagrams are being developed by the US Geological Survey for several metals, including nickel. A facility in Argentina that was scheduled to open last year for the production of lithium from a brine source is now permanently closed. However, lithium prices have remained relatively stable.

The operation of the INMETCO battery recycling capability was reviewed. Expansion of the cadmium recovery facility at lNMETC0 has increased capacity by 75% for that material. The complex set of factors that governs recycling economics was discussed. Lithium Technology Corporation and Pacific Lithium Ltd. will merge early next year. A membrane process developed by Pacific Lithium to purify lithium recovered from scrap batteries was discussed. The process currently operates on a laboratory scale in a batch mode, and an energy study projects that it will be cost effective. A new project by GM Ovonic to field used NiMH batteries from EVs for rural electrification in Oaxaca Mexico was described. This is primarily seen as a way to mitigate the high initial cost of this battery system. The entire Sub-Working Group discussed the status and future needs for comprehensive recycling of nickel/metal hydride and Li-ion batteries
Jungst, Rudolph G. 2000-12
SAND2000-2065J

Summary of Electrical Test Results for VRLA Batteries

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories conducts the Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Under the auspices of the ESS Pro- electrical tests were performed on two VRLA batteries to compare effects of improvements, evaluate their applicability to stationmy applications, and to determine their service lives. One battery represented a baseline design, and the other an improved design resulting ffom a development project. The hVO 9-cell, 1050-to 1200- Ah at C/8 batteries were tested over a 7-year period using primarily a 100°/0DOD, and approximately a C/8 discharge regime. A variety of charge profiles were investigated and characterized. Both batteries reached end-of-life after several hundred cycles. This paper will describe these results, and overall life data and comparison information will be summarized.

Crow, James Terry,
Francis, Imelda,
Butler, Paul Charles
2000-08
SAND2000-1734

Development of an Abuse Tolerance Test Protocol with Continuous Gas Monitoring

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Crafts, Chris C.,
Borek III, Theodore,
Jungst, Rudolph G.,
Doughty,D aniel H.,
Mowry, Curtis D
2000-07
SAND2000-1733

Life Cycle Testing of High Power 18650 Lithium-ion Cells

Abstract:(Not available at this time)

U., Terry,
Ingersoll, David,
Motloch, Chet,
Battaglia, Vince,
Bloom, Ira,
Haskins, Harold
2000-07
SAND2000-1730

Diagnostic Techniques: Gas/Electrolyte/Cell Component Analysis

Abstract:(Not available at this time)

Jungst, Rudolph G.,
Nagasubramanian, Ganesan,
Crafts, Chris C.,
BBorek III, Theodore
2000-07
SAND2000-1550

Energy Storage Concepts for a Restructured Electric Utility Industry

Abstract: The electric utility industry in the United States is being restructured and is now evolving from a regulated monopoly to a partially competitive, partially regulated group of electricity providers. This report outlines a wide range of innovative ways in which energy storage could be advantageously used in all aspects of this electric supply system of the future, including customer-sited storage. Nine scenarios that consider the use of storage in the restructured utility industry are described. From these  cenarios, four themes for guiding the economic and technical application of energy storage are presented.

Iannucci, Joe,
Schoenung, Susan
2000-07
SAND2000-1317

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Power Technologies.  The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry.  Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems.  This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

Boyes, John. D., 2000-06
SAND2000-1004

Operating Environment and Functional Requirements for Intelligent Distributed Control in the Electric Power Grid

Abstract: The restructuring of the U.S. power industry will surely lead to a greater dependence on computers and  communications to allow appropriate information sharing for management and control of the power grid. This report describes the operating environment for system operations that control the bulk power system as it exists today including the role NERC plays in this process. Some high-level functional requirements for new approaches to control of the grid are listed followed by a description of the next research steps that are needed to identify specific information management functions.

Smathers,Douglas C.,
Akhil, Abbas A.
2001-03
SAND2000-0899

Diagnostic Techniques: Gas/Electrolyte/Cell Component Analysis

Abstract :(Not available at this time)

Jungst, Rudolph,
Nagasubramanian, Ganesan,
Crafts, Chris C.
2000-03
SAND2000-0893

Zinc/Bromine Batteries

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Butler, Paul,
Eidler, Phillip,
Grimes, Patrick,
Klassen, Sandra,
Miles, Ronald
2000-04
SAND99-2691

Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

Abstract: This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm2 cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm2 cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm2 series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

Clark, N. C.,
Eidler, P.,
Lex, P.
1999-10
SAND99-2570

Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

Abstract: This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to “ride through” momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

Norris, B. L.,
Ball, G. J.
1999-10
SAND99-2232

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

Abstract: The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems

Farber De Anda, M.,
Boyes, J. D.,
Torres, W.
1999-09
SAND99-1853

Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

Abstract: Phase 1 of the Zinc/Bromine Load-leveling Development contract (No. 40-8965) advanced zinc/bromine battery technology demonstrates that it would be appropriate for electric utilities to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries met or exceeded criteria that were established to address concerns observed in previous development efforts. A battery stack that remained leak free was assembled. This report details the results of the Phase 1 efforts. A leak-free battery stack was developed, and a solid technology base for larger battery designs was established. Also, using a proprietary model from Johnson Controls Battery Group,Inc., modeling to improve the integrity and performance of battery stacks was performed.

Eidler,P., 1999-07
SAND99-1483

Performance and Design Analysis of a 250-kW, Grid-Connected Battery Energy Storage System

Abstract:PThis report documents the assessment of performance and design of a 250-kW prototype battery energy storage system developed by Omnion Power Engineering Company and tested by Pacific Gas and Electric Company, both in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories. The assessment included system performance, operator interface, and reliability. The report also discusses how to detect failed battery strings with strategically located voltage measurements.

Norris, B. L.,
Ball, G. J.
1999-06
SAND99-0883

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

Butler, P. C. 1999-04
SAND98-2019

Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

Abstract: The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of stateof- the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for future research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for the power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the standards and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

Atcitty, S.,
Ranade, S.,
Gray-Fenner, A.
1998-09
SAND98-1905

Battery Energy Storage Systems Life Cycle Costs Case Studies

Abstract: This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

Swaminathan, S.,
Miller, N. F.,
Sen, R. K.
1998-08
SAND98-1904

Analysis of the Value of Battery Energy Storage with Wind & Photovoltaic Generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

Abstract: The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories funded a study to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic technologies on the Sacramento Municipal Utility District system. This report presents the performance predictions and preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added to the Solano wind plant and the Hedge photovoltaic plant.

Zaininger, H. 1998-08
SAND98-1733

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY97

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997.

Butler, P. C. 1998-08
SAND98-1513

Review of Power Quality Applications of Energy Storage Systems

Abstract: Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing U.S. competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

Swaminathan, S.,
Sen, R. K.
1998-07
SAND98-0883A

Influence of ammonia reactions in the surface chemistry of GaN chemical vapor deposition.
Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Bartram, Michael Ewald 1998-03
SAND98-0591

Renewable Generation & Storage Project Industry & Laboratory Recommendations

Abstract: The United States Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies is planning a series of related projects that will seek to improve the integration of renewable energy generation with energy storage in modular systems. The Energy Storage Systems Program and the Photovoltaics Program at Sandia National Laboratories conducted meetings to solicit industry guidance and to create a set of recommendations for the proposed projects. Five possible projects were identified and a #8220;three-pronged” approach was recommended. The recommended approach includes preparing a storage technology handbook, analyzing data from currently fielded systems, and defining future user needs and application requirements.

Clark, N.C.,
Butler, P.,
Cameron, C.P.
1998-03
SAND97-2926

Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in the National Energy Modeling System

Abstract:The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market Module of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

Swaminathan, S.,
Flynn, W. T.,
Sen, R. K.,
1997-12
SAND97-2700

Renewable Generation & Storage Project Industry & Laboratory Recommendations

Abstract: The United States Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies is planning a series of related projects that will seek to improve the integration of renewable energy generation with energy storage in modular systems. The Energy Storage Systems Program and the Photovoltaics Program at Sandia National Laboratories conducted meetings to solicit industry guidance and to create a set of recommendations for the proposed projects. Five possible projects were identified and a “three-pronged” approach was recommended. The recommended approach includes preparing a storage technology handbook, analyzing data from currently fielded systems, and defining future user needs and application requirements.

Clark, N.C.,
Butler, P.,
Cameron, C.P.
1998-03
SAND97-1618J

Energy and Power Characteristics of Lithium-ion Cells

Abstract: We describe below the electrochemical performance characteristics (including charge/discharge characteristics at different rates) of 18650 and prismatic lithium-ion cells at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures. Ragone plots of power and energy data for these cells are compared and indicate that at room temperature the -500 mAh prismatic lithium-ion cells exhibit higher specific power and power density than the 18650 cells. Over the temperature range from 35°C to -20°C, the cell impedance is almost constant for both cell types. These cells show very little voltage drop for current pulses up to 1 A. Keywords: Lithium-ion; Ragone data

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan,
Jungst, Rudolph G.
1997-01
(Contact Sandia Technical Library)

T&D in Alaska: Like an Undeveloped Nation, in Electrical World

Abstract:(Not available at this time)

Taylor, P.,
Demarest, M.,
Butler, C.
1997-08
SAND97-1276

Final Report on the Development of a 250-kW Modular, Factory-Assembled Battery Energy Storage System

Abstract: A power management energy storage system was developed for stationary applications such as peak shaving, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve. Project activities included design, manufacture, factory testing, and field installation. The major features that characterize the development are the modularity of the product, its transportability, the power conversion method that aggregates power on the AC side of the converter, and the use of commonly employed technology for system components.

Corey, G. P.,
Nerbun, W.,
Porter, D.,
1998-08
SAND97-1275/2

Battery Energy Storage Market Feasibility Study—Expanded Report

Abstract: Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost & Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

Akhil, A.,
Kraft, S.,
1997-07
SAND97-1275/1

Battery Energy Storage Market Feasibility Study

Abstract: Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy’s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost & Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

Akhil, A.,
Kraft, S.,
1997-07
(Contact Sandia Technical Library)

Battery Storage All But Eliminates Diesel Generator, in Electrical World

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Demarest, M.,
Taylor, P.,
Achenbach D.,
Akhil, A. A.
1997-06
SAND97-1136

Energy Storage Systems Program Report 1996

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

Butler, P. C. 1997-08
SAND97-0443

Cost Analysis of Energy Storage Systems for Electric Utility Applications

Abstract: Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

DAkhil, A.,
Sen, R. K.,
Achenbach D.,
Swaminathan, S.
1997-02
(Contact Sandia Technical Library)

DOE’s Battery Storage Program, in Power Quality Assurance Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 16

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Corey, G. P.,
Buckingham, G. A.
1997-01
SAND96-2900

Photovoltaic Battery ∧ Charge Controller Market and Applications Survey: An Evaluation of the Photovoltaic System Market for 1995

Abstract: Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: a) PV system integrators, b) battery manufacturers, and c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report (discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

Hammond, Robert,
Turpin, Jane F.,
Corey, Garth P.,
Hund, Thomas D.,
Harrington, Steve R.
1996-12
(Contact Sandia Technical Library)

Lead-Acid Batteries in Systems to Improve Power Quality, Fifth European Lead Battery Conference, Barcelona, Spain

Abstract:(Not available at this time)

Butler, P. C.,
Taylor, P.,
Nerbun, W.
1996-10
(Contact Sandia Technical Library)

Energy Storage Solutions for Premium Power, in IEEE Aerospace and Electronics Systems, vol. 11, pp. 41-44

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Corey, G. P. 1996-06
SAND96-1062

Sodium/Sulfur Battery Engineering for Stationary Energy Storage—Final Report

Abstract: The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state-of-the-art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost-shared contract was performed by Silent Power, Inc., to design and develop a modular, 300-kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-PAc, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acidbased system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system (PCS) envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilitates transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

Koenig, A.,
Rasmussen,J.
1996-04
SAND96-0532

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Report for FY95

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

Butler, Paul C. 1996-03
SAND95-2287J

Battery Technology Evaluation at Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Butler, Paul C. 1995-10
SAND95-0420

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Report for FY94

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems program, which is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

Butler, Paul C. 1995-03
SAND94-3105J

Spectroelectrochemical Studies on Metallophthalocyanines Adsorbed on Electron Surfaces

Abstract: Co(II)- and Fe(II)-phthalocyanines adsorbed on platinum and various carbon electrode surfaces have been studied by spectroelectrochemical techniques. The metallophthalocyanine (MPc) films were prepared on substrate electrodes by a drop-dry method after dissolving them in pyridine. While not much c h a n gine s pectroscopic propertiesi s observed for MPc's adsorbed at the platinum electrode, both the Soret and Q bands were significantly broadened when adsorbed on the carbon electrodes. Also, the metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands are observed from CoPc films adsorbed on carbon substrates even if they are not reduced. These observations lead to a conclusion that the MPc molecules not only undergo oligomerization but also interact strongly with carbon surfaces by perhaps sharing -electrons of carbon

Ingersoll, David T.,
Doddapaneni, Narayan,
Park, Su-Moon,
Ortiz, Bertha,
Mho, Sun-Il
1994-12
SAND94-2605

Battery Energy Storage for Utility Applications: Phase I — Opportunities Analysis. Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: One of the goals of the Utility Battery Storage Systems (UBS) Program is to characterize potential electric utility applications for battery energy storage and their economic benefit. The UBS program is conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. An initial analysis was performed to identify specific utility applications, to develop engineering requirements for each, to identify entry markets for specific battery technologies, and to assess national-level benefits for each application. Input was provided by representatives from utilities, battery and battery systems manufacturers, consultants, and UBS staff. The results of this study are presented in this report.

Butler, P. C. 1994-10
SAND94-2047

Zinc-air Technology: December 1993 Meeting Report

Abstract: A Zinc/Air Battery Review and Strategic Planning Meeting was held in 1993. One outcome of the meeting was recognition of the need for a report on the current status of the technology. This report contains contributions from many of the attendees at the above meeting and expresses their views on where the technology is today and what could/should be done to improve its performance.

Clark, Nancy H.,
Kinoshita, K.
1994-10
SAND93-3900

Battery Energy Storage: A Preliminary Assessment of National Benefits (The Gateway Benefits Study). Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

Akhil A. A.,
et al.
1993-12
SAND93-3899

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Report for FY93. Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility- energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

Butler, Paul Charles 1994-02
SAND93-2477

Battery Energy Storage and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Utility Applications: A Qualitative Analysis

Abstract: This report was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management for an objective comparison of the merits of battery energy storage with superconducting magnetic energy storage technology for utility applications. Conclusions are drawn regarding the best match of each technology with these utility application requirements. Staff from the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program and the Superconductivity Programs at Sandia National Laboratories contributed to this effort.

Akhil, Abbas A.,
Butler, Paul C.,
Bickel, Thomas C.
1993-11
SAND93-2023

Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Batteries

Abstract: (Not available at this time)

Butler, Paul C.,
Klassen, Sandra E.
1993-08
SAND93-1754

Specific Systems Studies of Battery Energy for Electric Utilities

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four Utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results for these systems

Akhil, A. A.,
Lachenmeyer, L.,
Jabbour, S.J.,
Clark, N. H.
1993-08
SAND93-930047j

“Sodium Beta Batteries,” (Handbook of Batteries, Chapter 12, McGraw Hill)

Abstract:Secondary, high-temperature battery technologies that use sodium are attractive candidates for use in many relatively large-scale energy storage applications, including those associated with electric-vehicles (EV), utility generation and distribution, and aerospace. The most promising variants are referred to as sodium beta batteries because of two common and important features: liquid sodium as one reactant and beta"-alumina as the electrolyte. The most well-known of the two primary beta-battery technologies is sodium/sulfur, a system whose promise has motivated continued development for over 25 years. Its characteristics, status, and some general design considerations are included in Sections 1-5. Some 10 years later, the sodium/metal-chloride technology was introduced. Its salient features and development status are described separately in Section 6. Although yet to be marketed, significant advancements have been made with both of these technologies. For example, because of acceptable performance, durability, safety, and manufacturability, automated pilot-production facilities have been or are being built. Production from these plants is permitting precommercialization demonstrations to be conducted.

Braithwaite, J. W.,
Auxer, W. L.
1995-01
SAND92-2272

Utility Battery Storage Systems Programs Report for FY92

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1992.

Butler, P. C. 1993-01
SAND91-2694

Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program Report for FY-91

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1991.

Magnai, Nicholas,
Butler, Paul,
Akhil, Abbas,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey,
Freese, J.,
Clark, Nancy
1991-12
SAND91-1818

Characteristics and Development Report for the MC4169 Double-Layer Capacitor Assembly

Abstract: The MC4169 Double-Layer Capacitor Assembly was developed in response to a request from the B61 Systems organization to provide interim power for the B61 Common JTA Development. The project has been successfully completed, and Lot 1 has been built by MMSC/GEND. Development testing showed that this assembly met all design requirements. This report describes the design configuration, environmental testing, and aging, reliability, and safety studies done to ensure that the design requirements were met.’

Clark, Nancy H.,
Baca, Wes E.
1993-09
SAND91-0672

Exploratory Battery Technology Development Report for FY90

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of advanced rechargeable batteries for stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1990.

Magnai, Nicholas,
Butler, Paul,
Akhil, Abbas,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey,
Freese, J.,
Lott, Stephen
1991-04
SAND89-3039

Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Report for 1988

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1988.

Magnani, Nicholas,
Diegle, Ronald,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Bush, D.
Butler, Paul,
Freese, J.,
Grothaus, K.,
Murphy, Kevin
1989-10
SAND1988-2852

Glossary of Testing Terminology for Rechargeable Batteries

Abstract: The Battery Test Working Task Force was formed in 1983 for the purpose of coordinating the evaluation of developmental rechargeable batteries by DOE-funded labs. The Task Force developed this glossary of testing terminology to improve the accuracy of communication and to permit meaningful comparisons of test results. It consists of a section of technical terms and a separate mion of programmatic phrases and acronyms. The glossary emphasizes terms related to electric vehicle batteries due to the significant development and testing activities in this area.

Butler, P. C. 1988-10
SAND1988-2154

Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Report for 1987

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1987.

Magnani, Nicholas,
Diegle, Ronald,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Bush, D.
Butler, Paul,
Freese, J.,
Grothaus, K.,
Murphy, Kevin
1988-08
SAND1987-3094

Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Report for 1986

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy. storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1986.

Magnani, Nicholas,
Diegle, Ronald,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Bush, D.
Butler, Paul,
Freese, J.,
Grothaus, K.,
Murphy, Kevin
Shoemaker, Paul
1988-02
SAND1986-1266

Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Report for 1985

Abstract: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1985.

Magnani, Nicholas,
Diegle, Ronald,
Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Bush, D.
Butler, Paul,
Freese, J.,
Grothaus, K.,
Murphy, Kevin
Shoemaker, Paul
1987-06