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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Publications

Date Report No Title Authors
2018-02PNNL-27314-1Determination of Duty Cycles for Energy Storage Systems Providing Frequency Regulation and Peak Shaving Services with var Support

Abstract: This report supplements the report, Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems, PNNL-22010 Rev. 2/SAND2016-3078 (2016 Protocol). It provides the background and documentation associated with the development of a duty cycle to be applied to an energy storage system for either of the two applications (frequency regulation with var support or peak shaving with var support) in the report title. To date, the Protocol has addressed either real or reactive power flow. The work reported here addresses situations that have both real and reactive power flow. Frequency Regulation (FR), with its energy neutral and volatile signal, and peak shaving (PS), with constant power charge and discharge, were chosen as two extremes in the real power duty cycle. The available vars were used in one case for both FR and PS, while keeping the power factor fixed for the second case. The impact on the grid of combining real and reactive power is discussed relative to storage sourcing reactive power during discharge and sinking reactive power during charge. Performance metrics were identified for both applications and new metrics were developed and are described herein.

Alam, J.E.,


Crawford, A.J.,
Viswanathan, V.V.,

2016-06PNNL-SA-118870Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards

Abstract: Codes, standards and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until they are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify an installation's safety may be challenged in applying current CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). (PNNL-SA-118870 / SAND2016-5977R).

Conover, D.,


Cole, P.,

2014-06PNNL-23390Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems Integrated with Microgrids

Abstract: This report supplements the report, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," PNNL-22010, Rev. 1, June 2014. It provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle to be applied to an energy storage system (ESS) in a microgrid operated in an islanded mode, for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the June 2014 protocol for measuring and expressing ESS performance.

Conover, D.,

Viswanathan, V., Crawford, A.,

2014-06PNNL-22010 Rev. 1Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

Abstract: Purpose: The "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems" (PNNL-22010) was first issued in November 2012 as a first step toward providing a foundational basis for developing an initial standard for the uniform measurement and expression of energy storage system (ESS) performance. Its subsequent use in the field and review by the protocol working group and most importantly the users' subgroup and the thermal subgroup has led to the fundamental modifications reflected in this update of the 2012 Protocol.

Conover, D.,

Viswanathan, V., Crawford, A., Ferreira, S., Schoenwald, D.,