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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Publications

Date Report No Title Authors
2016-06PNNL-SA-118870Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards

Abstract: Codes, standards and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until they are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify an installation's safety may be challenged in applying current CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). (PNNL-SA-118870 / SAND2016-5977R).

Conover, D.,


Cole, P.,

2014-06PNNL-23390Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems Integrated with Microgrids

Abstract: This report supplements the report, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," PNNL-22010, Rev. 1, June 2014. It provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle to be applied to an energy storage system (ESS) in a microgrid operated in an islanded mode, for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the June 2014 protocol for measuring and expressing ESS performance.

Conover, D.,

Viswanathan, V., Crawford, A.,

2014-06PNNL-22010 Rev. 1Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

Abstract: Purpose: The "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems" (PNNL-22010) was first issued in November 2012 as a first step toward providing a foundational basis for developing an initial standard for the uniform measurement and expression of energy storage system (ESS) performance. Its subsequent use in the field and review by the protocol working group and most importantly the users' subgroup and the thermal subgroup has led to the fundamental modifications reflected in this update of the 2012 Protocol.

Conover, D.,

Viswanathan, V., Crawford, A., Ferreira, S., Schoenwald, D.,